Violaceae

AGATEA A.Gray

  1. Agatea violaris A. GRAY, Bot. U.S. Expl. Exp. 1 (1854) 89, t. 7; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 194. - A. macrobotrys K. Sch. & Laut. Fl. Schutzgeb. (1901) 453, t. 14. - A. salomonensis Merr. & PERRY, J. Arn. Arb. 24 (1943) 209. New Guinea to the Pacific. PAPUA.


HYBANTHUS Jacq.

  1. Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. v. M. Fragm. Phyt. Austr. 10 (1876) 81; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 197. - Viola enneasperma L. Sp. PI. (1753) 937. - Ionidium enneaspermum (L.) Vent. Jard. Malmais. 1 (1803) sub t. 27. - Ionidium heterophyllum Vent. Jard. Malmais. 1 (1803) sub t. 27; BACK. Schoolfl. (1911) 66. - Ionidium frutescens BL. Bijdr. (1825) 58. - Ionidium thymifolium Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1835) 97, non Bot. Bemerk. (1844) 11, nec Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 10 (1915) Bot. 191. - Ionidium molle Turcz.. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 27, ii (1854) 338. - Ionidium zippelii Oudem. in Miq. Ann. 3 (1867) 73. - H. suffruticosus (L.) Baill. Bot. Medic. 2 (1884) 841. Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, New Guinea and Queensland. JAVA, NUSA TENGGARA, MALUKU.


RINOREA Aubl.

  1. Rinorea anguifera (Lour.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 183. - Medusa anguifera Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 406. - Alsodeia echinocarpa Korth. Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 360. - Pentaloba corylifolia Turcz.. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 27, ii (1854) 341. - Alsodeia corylifolia (Turcz..) Turcz.. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 36 (1863) i 559. - Alsodeia capillata King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 407. - Alsodeia comosa King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 407. - Alsodeia echinocarpa Korth. var. nervosa Capit. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 57 (1910) 394, el var. zollingeri BOERL. ex Capit. I.e. - R. anguifera var. nervosa (Capit.) Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 11 (1916) Bot. 100. R. comosa (KINO) Merr. En. Born. (1921) 410. - R. echinocarpa BURK. Gard. Bull. S. S. 6 (1930)172. Indochina, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. SUMATRA, KALIMANTAN.

  2. Rinorea bengalensis (Wall.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 184. - Alsodeia bengalensis Wall. Trans. Med. Phys. Soc. Calc. 7 (1835) 224. - Alsodeia obtusa Korth. Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 359. - Pentaloba semigyrata Turcz.. I.e. 342. - Alsodeia fasciculata (Turcz..) Turcz.. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 36 (1863) i 559. - Alsodeia paradoxa Blume ex Oudem. in Miq. Ann. 3 (1867) 71. - Alsodeia wallichiana Hook. f. & Th. in Hook.f. Fl. Br. Ind. 1 (1872) 187. - R. wallichiana (Hook. f. & Thomson) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42. - R. obtusa (Korth.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42. - Gelonium glandulosum Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 3 (1910) 917. - Gelonium trifidum Elm. I.e. 918. - Alsodeia lankawiense Ridl.J. Str. Br.R.As. Soc. 59 (1911) 70. - Alsodeia pruinosa Pulle, Nova Guinea 8 (1912) 669. - Alsodeia salomonensis RECH. in Fedde, Rep. 11 (1912) 184. - R. paradoxa (BL. ex Oudem.) J.J.Sm. in K. & V. Bijdr. 13 (1914) 67. - Alsodeia semigyrata (Turcz..) J.J.Sm., I.e. 72. - R. semigyrata (Turcz..) J.J.Sm., I.e. 71. - R. fasciculata var. minor Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2877. - R. fasciculata (Turcz..) Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 12 (1917) Bot. 286. - . glandulosa (Elm.) Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 12 (1917) Bot. 286. - R. lankawiensis (Ridl.) Craib, Fl. Siam. En. 1 (1925) 90. - R. pruinosa (Pulle) Melch. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. Fam. ed. 2, 21 (1925) 352. - R. salomonensis (RECH.) Melch. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. Fam. ed. 2, 21 (1925) 352. - Suregada glandulosa (Elm.) Croizat, Bull. Jard. Bot Btzg III, 17 (1942) 216. - Suregada trifida (Elm.) Croizat, I.c. Sri Lanka and India to Australia and Oceania. KALIMANTAN, SULAWESI, NUSA TENGGARA, MALUKU, PAPUA.

  3. Rinorea horneri (Korth.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 185. - Alsodeia horneri Korth. Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 360. - Alsodeia browni Korth. Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 361. - Alsodeia kunstleriana King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 401. - R. brownii (Korth.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42. - Alsodeia astrolabes K. Sch. & Laut. FI. Schutzgeb. (1901) 451. - R. copelandii Merr. Philip. Gov. Lab. Bur. Bull. 35 (1906) 45. - R. acuminata Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 5 (1910) Bot. 201. - Alsodeia hirtella Ridl. Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew (1914) 377. - R. amboinensis Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 11 (1916) Bot. 292. - R. hirtella (Ridl.) Merr. En. Born. (1921) 410. - R. castilloi Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 21 (1922) 530. - R. astrolabes (K. Sch. & Laut.) Melch. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. Fam. ed. 2, 21 (1925) 352. - R.ledermannii Melch. I.e. 370. - R. elmeri Merr. Un. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 206. - R. celebica Melch. Notizbl. Berl.-Dahl. 12 (1934) 205. - R. hamelii Merr. Pap. Mich. Ac. Sc. 19 (1934) 171. S Thailand and Malesia, except Java and Lesser Sunda Islands. SUMATRA, KALIMANTAN, SULAWESI, MALUKU, PAPUA.

  4. Rinorea javanica (Blume) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 188. - Prosthesia javanica BL. Bijdr. (1826) 867. - Alsodeia haplobotrys Hassk. Versl. Kon. Ak. Wet. 4 (1856) 137. - Alsodeia javanica(BL.) Miq. Fl.Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 117. - lsodeia hookeriana King, J.As. Soc.Beng. 58, ii (1889) 402. - Alsodeia wrayi King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 403. - R. haplobotrys (Hassk.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42. - R. wrayi TAUB. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. Fam. 3, 6 (1895) 329. - Alsodeia minahassae Koord. Minah. (1898) 645. - Alsodeia formicaria Elm. Leaf!. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1850. - R. formicaria (Elm.) Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 12 (1917) Bot. 286. - R. hookeriana (King) BURK. Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew (1935) 319; Diet. (1935) 1913. - Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, W Java, Palawan, Sulawesi. SUMATRA, JAVA, SULAWESI.

  5. Rinorea lanceolata (Wall.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 187. - Vareca lanceolata Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Wall. 2 (1824) 445. - Pentaloba lanceolata (Wall.) ARN. Mag. Zool. Bot. 2 (1848) 544. - Alsodeia brownei (non Korth.) Hassk. Retzia ed. Nov. (1858) 22. - Alsodeia cymulosa Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 116, non WELW. 1868. - Alsodeia dasypyxis Miq. Sum. (1860) 391. - Alsodeia lanceolata Oudem. in Miq. Ann. 3 (1867) 68. - Alsodeia maingayi Hook.f. & Th. in Hook.f. Fl. Br. Ind. 1 (1872) 188. - Alsodeia mollis Hook.f. & Th. in Hook. f. Fl. Br. Ind. 1 (1872) 188. - Alsodeia floribunda King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 406. - R. cymulosa (Miq.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42. - R. maingayi (Hook.f. & Thomson) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42. - R. mollis (Hook.f. &Thomson)O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42. - Alsodeia grandiflora Ridl. Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew (1914) 377. - R. floribunda (King) Merr. Pap. Mich. Ac. Sc. 19 (1934) 171. Burma, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, W Java. SUMATRA, JAVA.

  6. Rinorea longiracemosa ( ) Craib, Fl. Siam. En. 1 (1925) 90; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 189. - Alsodeia longiracemosa Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 39, ii (1870) 63. - Alsodeia cinerea King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 403. - Alsodeia cinerea var. hirsutiflora King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 404. - Alsodeia macropyxisCapit.Bull. Soc. Bot.Fr. 57 (1910) 395. - R. macropyxis (Capit.) Merr. En. Born. (1921) 411. - R. gaultheriiflora J. J.Sm. Bull. Jard. Bot. Btzg III, 4 (1922) 231, t. 5. - R. borneensis Merr. Un. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 206. Myanmar, Indochina, Hainan, Thailand, W Malesia. SUMATRA, JAVA, KALIMANTAN.

  7. Rinorea macrophylla (Decne) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 190. - Alsodeia macrophylla Decne, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 3 (1834)468, t. 19 = Herb. Timor. Descr. (1835) 100, t. 19. - Alsodeia horsfieldii Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 117. - Alsodeia dasycaula Miq. Sumatra (I860) 391. - Alsodeia horsfieldii Turcz.. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 36 (1863) i 559. - Alsodeia membranacea King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 402. - R. horsfieldii (Miq.) O.K. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 42. - R. palawanensis Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 1 (1906)Suppl. 210; En. Philip. 3 (1923) 104, incl. var. mollis. - Alsodeia hispida Ridl. J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc. 6 (1912) 50. - R. dasycaula (Miq.) Craib, Fl. Siam. En. 1 (1925) 88; Gagnep. Fl. Gen. I.-C. Suppl. 1 (1939) 194. - R. yatesii Merr. Pap. Mich. Ac. Sc. 19 (1934) 173. Assam to Philippines and Lesser Sunda Islands. SUMATRA, JAVA, NUSA TENGGARA.

  8. Rinorea sclerocarpa (BURGERSD.) JACOBS, Blumea 15 (1967) 131; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 186. - Alsodeia sclerocarpa BURGERSD. in Miq. PI. Jungh. (1852) 122. - Alsodeia rugosa Miq. Sumatra (1860) 390. - Alsodeia condensa King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 405. - Alsodeia pachycarpa King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 407. - lsodeia scortechinii King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 58, ii (1889) 405. - R. pachycarpa (King) Craib, Fl. Siam. En. 1 (1925) 91. R. scortechinii (King) Craib, I.E. R. sumatrana Merr. Pap. Mich. Ac. Sc. 19 (1934) 172. R. condensa (King) Merr. I.e. 173. Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. SUMATRA.

  9. Rinorea macrantha JACOBS, Blumea 15 (1967) 133, f. 1; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 188. W Central Borneo. KALIMANTAN.


VIOLA L.

  1. Viola arcuata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 58; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 206. - V. distans Wall. [Cat. (1831) n. 40221 Trans. Med. Soc. Calc. 7 (1835) 227. - V. japonica (non LANGSD.) Korth. Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 357. - V. alata BURGERSDIJK in Miq. PI. Jungh. 1 (1852) 121. - V. toppingii Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1908) 504. - V. semilunaris (Maxim.) Becker var. philippinarum Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34, ii (1916) 231. - V. lunata Ridl. Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot. 9 (1916) 18. - V. herbivaga Ridl. J. Bot. 73 (1935) 17. India to New Guinea. SUMATRA, JAVA, MALUKU, PAPUA.

  2. Viola betonicifolia J. E. Smith in Rees, Cyclop. 37, I (1817) n. 7; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 202. Himalaya to Australia, scattered.

  3. Viola betonicifolia subsp. betonicifolia: Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 203. V. betonicifolia J. E. SM. - V. betonicifolia J. E. SM. - ssp. australis Becker, Bot. Jahrb. 54 (1917) Beibl. 120, 166. V. betonicifolia J. E. SM. ssp. nepalensis Becker, 1.e.; Philip. J. Sc. 19 (1921) 716. - V. patrinii DC. var. napaulensis DC. Prod. 1 (1824) 293. V. caespitosa D. DON, Prod. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 205. V. patrinii DC. var. caespitosa Ridl. J. Bot. 73 (1935) 17. V. patrinii (non DC.) Merr. Philip. J. Sc. 5 (1910) Bot. 200, pro parte. Sumatra, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, W New Guinea. SUMATRA, JAVA, KALIMANTAN, SULAWESI, NUSA TENGGARA, PAPUA.

  4. Viola betonicifolia subsp. nova-guineensis D.M.Moore in Fedde, Rep. 68 (1963) 82; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 203. Sumatra, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands (Timor), New Guinea. NUSA TENGGARA, PAPUA.

  5. Viola biflora L., Sp. PI. (1753) 936; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 201. Europe, America, Himalaya to Japan, Sumatra. SUMATRA.

  6. Viola curvistylis BOISSIEU & CapitAINE, Bull Soc. Bot. Fr. 57 (1910) 339; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 210. - V. ovalifolia Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34, ii (1916) 256. - V. malvina Ridl. J. Fed. Mai. St. Mus. 15 (1917) 135. V. serpens (non Wall.) Ridl. Fl. Mai. Pen. 1 (1922) 126, pro parte. V. lecomteana Becker ex GAONEP. Suppl. Fl. G6n. 1.-C. 1 (1939) 181, descr. gall., illeg. Myanmar, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, North Borneo. SUMATRA.

  7. Viola diffusa GINGINS in DC. Prod. 1 (1824) 298; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 202.

    • Viola diffusa subsp. apoensis (Elm.) D.M.Moore, comb. nov. V. apoense Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2878. - V. diffusa GING. ssp. tenuis (BENThomson) Becker, Philip. J. Sc. 19 (1921) 714, pro parte. Philippines and New Guinea. PAPUA.

  8. Viola inconspicua Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (1823) 57; FM. - V. trinervis Korth. Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 357. - V. confusa CHAMP, ex BENTh. in Hook. J. Bot. Kew Misc. 3 (1851) 260, pro parte. - V. patrinii{non DC.) Boissieu & Capitaine, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 57 (1910) 340. - V. serpens (non Wall.) Ridl. Fl. Mai. Pen. 1 (1922) 126, pro parte. Himalaya to Central Malesia (Philippines). SUMATRA, JAVA.

  9. Viola javanica Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34, ii (1916) 260; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 206. Endemic to E Java. JAVA.

  10. Viola kjellbergii MelchIOR.NotizbI. Berl.-Dahl- -12 (1934) 206; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 210. - V. arcuata (non Blume) Ooststr. & H.J. Lam, Blumea 5 (1945) 594. - V. lagaipensis D.M.Moore, Nova Guinea, Bot. n. 11 (1963) 182. Sulawesi and New Guinea. SULAWESI, PAPUA.

  11. Viola mearnsii MerrILL, Philip. J. Sc. 5 (1910) Bot. 200; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 205. Philippines and Sulawesi. SULAWESI.

  12. Viola odorata L., Sp. PI. (1753) 934; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 201. Europe to Caucasus. Introduced to Java.

  13. Viola papuana Becker & Pulle, Nova Guinea 8 (1912) 670; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 211. - V. klossii Ridl. Trans. Linn. Soc.', Bot. 9 (1916) 18. Endemic to New Guinea. PAPUA.

  14. Viola philippica CAVANILLES, Icon. Descr. 6 (1801) 19. - V. confusa CHAMP, ex BENTh. in Hook. J. Bot. Kew Misc. 3 (1851) 260, pro parte. - V. selkirkii (non Pursh) Bouissieu & Capitaine, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 57 (1910) 337. - V. edanoii Becker, Philip. J. Sc. 19 (1921) 722. Sumatra, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands. SUMATRA, JAVA, SULAWESI, NUSA TENGGARA.

  15. Viola pilosa Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (1823) 57; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 207. - V. serpens Wall. ex Ging. in DC. Prod. 1 (1824) 296. - V. palmaris BUCH.-HAM. ex GING. in DC. Prod. 1 (1824) 298. - V. hamiltoniana D. Don, Prod. Fl.Nepal. (1825) 206. - V. sarmentosa BURGERSDIJK in Miq. PI. Jungh. 1 (1852) 120. - V. burgersdijkii OUDHMANS in Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 77. - V. glaucescens OudemANS in Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 74. - V. confusa (non Champ.) Boissieu & Capitaine, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 57 1910) 339. - V. canescens (non Wall.) BOISSIEU & CapitAINE, I.e. 338. - V. celebica Becker in Fedde, Rep. 14 (1916) 321. Himalaya to Maluku Archipelago. SUMATRA, JAVA, SULAWESI, NUSA TENGGARA, MALUKU.

  16. Viola sumatrana Miq., Sum. (1860) 389; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 210. - V. sumatrana Miq. var. caerulescens BOISSIEU & CapitAINE, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 57 (1910) 341. - V. hossei Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34, ii (1916) 257, pro parte. - V. sikkimensis Becker var. acuminatifolia Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34, ii (1916) 260. - V. serpens (non Wall.) Ridl. FL. Mai. Pen. 1 (1922) 126. - V. korinchensis Ridl. J. Bot. 73 (1935) 15. - V. robinsonii Ridl. I.e. 16. - V. jugalis Ridl. I.e. 18. China, Burma, Thailand, Indo-china; Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. SUMATRA, KALIMANTAN.

  17. Viola tricolor L., Sp. PI. (1753) 935; Jacobs & Moore, Fl. Malesiana ser 1. 7, 1 (1971) 201. Native of Turkey to Himalaya. Introduced to Indonesia in Java.


References

Jacobs M, Moore DM. Violaceae. Fl. Malesiana, ser. I. 1971;7(1):179-212.