Apocynaceae

AGANOSMA (Blume) G.Don

  1. Aganosma wallichii G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 77; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 30. - Aganosma calycina A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 432. - Echites calycinus Wall., Numer. List 1653 (1829), nom. nud. - Aganosma blumei A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 432, p.p. - Echites caryophyllatus auct. non Roxb.: Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1041, p.p. (excluding citation of Rheede drawing). — Aganosma caryophyllata G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 77. - Aganosma roxburghii auct. non G. Don: Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 2 (1841) t. 440. Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java.


ALSTONIA R.Br.

  1. Alstonia angustifolia Wall. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 409; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 37. - Amblyocalyx beccarii Benth. in Hooker, Icon. Pl. 3, 2 (1876) 69, t. 1179. - Alstonia beccarii (Benth.) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 19 (1947) 297. - Alstonia angustifolia Wall. ex A.DC. var. elliptica King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 441. - Alstonia angustifolia Wall. ex A.DC. var. latifolia King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 441. - Alstonia latifolia (King & Gamble) Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2 (1923) 347. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan.

  2. Alstonia angustiloba Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 438; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 39. - Paladelpha angustiloba (Miq.) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 19 (1947) 299. - Alstonia calophylla Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 439. - Alstonia angustiloba Miq. var. glabra Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Boomsoort. Java 1 (1894) 120. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Kalimantan.

  3. Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1837) 87; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 46. - Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don var. glabra A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 410. - Alstonia costata Wall. ex Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 439, non R.Br. (1811). - Alstonia batino Blanco, Fl. Philipp. 2 (Suppl.) (1845) 589. - Alstonia acuminata Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 140. — Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don var. acuminata (Miq.) Monach., Pacific Sci. 3 (1949) 166. - Alstonia subsessilis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 140. - Alstonia pangkorensis King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 442. - Alstonia paucinervia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 5 (1910) 224. - Alstonia oblongifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 10 (1915) 65. - Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don var. mollis Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3 (1923) 322. - Alstonia glabriflora Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 179. - Alstonia brassii Monach., Pacific Sci. 3 (1949) 166. - Alstonia brassii × spectabilis Markgr., Blumea 22 (1974) 29, nom. illeg. Sri Lanka and India east to Indochina, Malesia except Java, Sulawesi, and Nusa Tenggara.

  4. Alstonia pneumatophora Backer ex Den Berger, Meded. Proefstat. Thee 97 (1926) 153; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 52. - Alstonia pneumatophora Backer ex Den Berger var. petiolata Monach., Pacific Sci. 3 (1949) 153. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan, Sulawesi.

  5. Alstonia rostrata C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew (1929) 315; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 53. - Winchia calophylla A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 326, not Alstonia calophylla Miq. (1857). — Winchia glaucescens K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 125. — Alstonia glaucescens (K. Schum.) Monach., Pacific Sci. 3 (1949) 144. - Alstonia pachycarpa Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2 (1935) 310. - Alstonia undulifolia Kochummen & K.M. Wong, Blumea 29 (1984) 513. China, Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia. N, WEST.

  6. Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br., Asclepiadeae (1810) 65; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 57. - Echites scholaris L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 53. - Echites pala Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13 (1822) 518. - Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. var. avae A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 409. - Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. var. blumii A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 409. - Alstonia kurzii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 643. - Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. var. velutina Monach., Pacific Sci. 3 (1949) 150. Pakistan east to Australia and Oceania.

  7. Alstonia spatulata Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1037; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 59. - Alstonia cuneata Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1837) 87. Myanmar east to Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan, New Guinea.



ALYXIA R.Br.

  1. Alyxia acuminata K. Schum. in K. Schum. & Hollrung, Fl. Kaiser Wilhelmsland (1889) 110; Markgr., Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1927) 279; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 181; Blumea 23 (1977) 390, p.p; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 27. — Gynopogonacuminatus (K. Schum.) K. Schum. in Engler& Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 151. —Alyxia acuminata K. Schum. var. lancifolia Markgr., Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1927) 280; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 182. — Alyxia acuminata K. Schum. var. montana Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 182. — Alyxia maluensis Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 185; Blumea 23 (1977) 395, p.p. — Alyxia clemensiae Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 396 (but not all paratypes). — Alyxia lata auct. non Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 381, p.p. — Alyxia multistriata auct. non Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 397, p.p. — Alyxia scabrida auct. nonMarkgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 397, p.p. — Alyxia fragrans auct. non Merr. & L.M. Perry: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 398, p.p. — Alyxia blancoi auct. non Merr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 401, p.p. — Alyxia sogerensis auct. non Wernham ex S. Moore.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 407, p.p. New Guinea.

  2. Alyxia angustifolia Ridl., J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 6 (1915) 161; Fl. Malay Pen. 2 (1923) 333; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 385, p.p; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 29. — Alyxia pachyphylla Merr., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 77 (1917) 237; Bibl. Enum. Born. PI. (1921) 499; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 383, p.p. — Alyxia pagonensis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 385, p.p. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Palawan.

  3. Alyxia arfakensis Kaneh. & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 489; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 400, p.p; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 33. — Alyxia punctata auct. nori Kaneh. & Hatus.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977)404, p.p.; P.Royen, Alpine Fl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2853, p.p. — Alyxia microphylla auct. non Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 405, p.p.

  4. Alyxia cacuminum Markgr., Nova Guinea 14,2(1927)281;Bot. Jahrb. Syst.61 (1927) 186; Blumea 23 (1977) 403, p.p.; P. Royen, Alpine Fl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2851, p.p; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 36 — Alyxia semipallescens auct. nonF. Muell.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 403, p.p. — Alyxia punctata auct. nonKaneh. & Hatus.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977)404,p.p.; P.Royen, Alpine Fl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2853, p.p.

  5. Alyxia celebica D.J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 39. — Sulawesi.

  6. Alyxia composita Warb.,Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 13 (1891) 404; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 40. — Alyxia lata Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 187;Kaneh. & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 493; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 381, p.p. — Alyxia maluensis auct. non Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 395, p.p. Moluccas, New Guinea.

  7. Alyxia defoliataMarkgr., Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1927) 280; Bot. Jahrb. Syst, 61 (1927) 186; Blumea 23(1977) 399; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 44. — Alyxia defoliatasubsp. orientalis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 399 (but not all paratypes). — Alyxia arfakensis auct. non Kaneh. & Hatus.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 400, p.p. — Alyxia purpureoclada auct. nonKaneh. & Hatus.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 400, p.p.

  8. Alyxia floribunda Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 184; Merr. & L.M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 24 (1943)211; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 397, p.p; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 47. — Alyxia rostrata auct. non (Markgr.) Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 411, p.p. — Alyxia ridleyana auct. non Wernham: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 411, p.p. New Guinea.

  9. Alyxia ganophyllaMarkgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 60 (1926) 314; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 50. — Alyxia obovatifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 17 (1921) 306; Enum. Philipp. Fl. PI. 3 (1923) 328. — Alyxia induta Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 60 (1926) 315, nom.nud. — [Gynopogon indutus K. Schum., ined.]. — Alyxia markgrafiana O. Schwartz, Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg7 (1931) 258. — Alyxia pagonensis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 385, p.p. — Alyxia pilosa auct. nonMiq.: Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 635; King & Gamble, J.Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1908) 416; Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. PI. (1921) 499; Ridl., Fl. Malay Pen. 2 (1923) 332; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 382, p.p. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi (? - see note), Mindanao

  10. Alyxia globosa D.J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 51. Sulawesi.

  11. Alyxia halmaheirae Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 4 (1869) 140; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 408, p.p.; Widjaya, Sispipan Floribunda 2 (1992) 6.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 57. — Pulassarium halmaheirae (Miq.)Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 417.— Alyxia stellata auct. non(J. R. Forst.& G. Forst.) Roem. & Schult.: Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19(1898) 528. Sulawesi, Moluccas.

  12. Alyxia kabaenae Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 398; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 59. Sulawesi.

  13. Alyxia kendarica Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 410.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 60. Sulawesi.

  14. Alyxia lackii D.J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 64. Sulawesi.

  15. Alyxia laurina Gaudich., Voy. Uranie, Bot. (1829) 451, t. 62; G. Don, Gen. Hist. (1837)96; A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 347; Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 408; Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 186; Blumea 23 (1977) 391.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 60.—Pulassarium laurinum (Gaudich.)Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 417. — Gynopogonlaurinus (Gaudich.) K. Schum. in Engler& Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 151. New Guinea, Indonesia.

  16. Alyxia manusiana D.J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 64. New Guinea (Manus Island).

  17. Alyxia markgrafii Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 2 (1934) 105; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 409; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 73. — Alyxia schlechteri Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 184, non H. Lev. (1911). — Alyxia novoguineensis Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 6 (1941) 115. — Alyxia sleumeriMarkgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 409, p.p. (not including type). — Alyxia rostrata auct. non (Markgr.) Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 411, p.p. — Alyxia ridleyana auct. non Wernham: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 411, p.p. New Guinea

  18. Alyxia minutiflora D.J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 76. Sulawesi.

  19. Alyxia mujongensis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 384; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 79. Borneo.

  20. Alyxia multistriata Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 15 (1940) 131; Blumea 23 (1977) 397, p.p.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 80. New Guinea.

  21. Alyxia oblongata Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89 (1928) 523.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 80. — Alyxia ruscifolia R.Br, subsp. majorP.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 557; Fl. Austral. 28 (1996) 128. — Alyxia ruscifolia auct. non R.Br.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 412. Moluccas, New Guinea,Australia.

  22. Alyxia oleifolia King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 419; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 103.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 84. - Alyxia kinabaluensis Markgr., Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 1 (1950) 26. - Alyxia atjehensis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 393, p.p. (not including type). - Alyxia pachyphylla auct. non Merr.: Merr., Bibliogr. Enum. Born. Pl. (1921) 499. - Alyxia angustifolia auct. non Ridl.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 385, p.p. - Alyxia oleifolia King & Gamble var. tenuifolia auct. non Ridl.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 385, p.p. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.

  23. Alyxia palawanensis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 400.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 86. Palawan, Borneo, Sulawesi.

  24. Alyxia papuana D.J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 87.

  25. Alyxia pilosa Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 408; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 107; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 90. - Pulassarium pilosum (Miq.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 417. - Alyxia scortechinii King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 421. - Alyxia selangorica King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 422. - Alyxia triptera Merr., Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 24 (1939) 88. - Alyxia atjehensis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 393 (but not all paratypes). Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia.

  26. Alyxia pugio Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 182; Blumea23 (1977)406; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 94. New Guinea

  27. Alyxia pullei Markgr., Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1927) 281; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 186; Kaneh. & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 492; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 384; P. Royen, Alpine Fl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2849.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 94. New Guinea.

  28. Alyxia punctata Kaneh. & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 49; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 404, p.p.; P. Royen, AlpineFl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2853, p.p.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 96.— Alyxia sleumeri Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 409, p.p. (not including type). — Alyxia purpureoclada auct. nonKaneh. & Hatus.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 400, p.p. New Guinea.

  29. Alyxia purpureoclada Kaneh. & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 491; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 400, p.p.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 97. — Alyxia clemensiae Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 396, p.p. (notincluding type). — Alyxia floribunda auct. non Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 397, p.p. — Alyxia ridleyana auct. non Wernham: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 411, p.p. New Guinea.

  30. Alyxia reinwardtii Blume, Catalogus (1823) 43; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 112.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 100. - Gynopogon reinwardtii (Blume) Koord., Exkurs.-Fl. Java 3 (1912) 74. - Alyxia lucida Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 540. - Alyxia reinwardtii Blume var. lucida (Wall.) Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 389. - Alyxia stellata Roem. & Schult. var. latifolia Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1031. — Alyxia reinwardtii Blume var. latifolia (Blume) Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 390; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 230. - Alyxia gynopogon sensu Wall., Numer. List 1605 (1829), nom. nud. - Alyxia odorata Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 97. - Pulassarium odoratum (Wall. ex G. Don) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 417. - Alyxia aromatica Reinw. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 346, nom. illeg. (in synonymy). - Alyxia quinata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 407. - Pulassarium quinatum (Miq.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 417. - Alyxia pumila Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 635. - Pulassarium pumilum (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 417. — Gynopogon pumilus (Hook.f.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 151. — Alyxia reinwardtii Blume var. pumila (Hook.f.) Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 388. - Alyxia lucida Wall. var. meiantha Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4 (1894) 207. - Alyxia reinwardtii Blume var. meiantha (Stapf) Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 389. - Alyxia pisiformis [Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 261, nom. nud.]; Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1126. - [Gynopogon pisiformis Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 261, nom. nud.]. — [Pulassarium pisiforme Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 261, nom. nud.]. - Alyxia flavescens [Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 261, nom. nud.]; Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1127. - [Gynopogon flavescens Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 261, nom. nud.]. — [Pulassarium flavescens Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 261, nom. nud.]. - Alyxia forbesii King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 420. - Gynopogon spec. A Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1913) 173 from E Java. - Gynopogon spec. C Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1913) 173 from C Java. - Gynopogon spec. B Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1913) 174 from W Java. - Alyxia oleifolia King & Gamble var. tenuifolia Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2 (1923) 333. - Alyxia nitens Kerr, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1937 (1937) 41. - Alyxia spec. Kerr in Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1939) 434. - Alyxia cinerea Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 390. - Alyxia reinwardtii Blume var. cinerea (Bakh.f.) Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 387. - Alyxia winckelii Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 390. - Alyxia jasminea Tsiang & P.T. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11 (1973) 362. - Alyxia reinwardtii Blume var. insularis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 387. - Alyxia reinwardtii Blume var. obovatula Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 388. - Alyxia calcicola Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 405. - Alyxia kerrii D.J. Middleton, Blumea 40 (1995) 111. - Alyxia spp. indet. Coode et al., Checklist Pl. Brunei (1996) 25. - Alyxia stellata auct. non (J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.) Roem. & Schult.: Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1031. - Gynopogon stellatus auct. non J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.: Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46, 2 (1877) 251. - Alyxia selangorica auct. non King & Gamble: Kerr in Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1939) 433. - Alyxia angustifolia auct. non Ridl.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 385, p.p. - Alyxia schlechteri auct. non H. Lév.: I.M. Turner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 47 (1997 [‘1995’]) 124. Southern China, Myanmar to Indochina, W Malesia to Philippines and Bali.

  31. Alyxia ridleyana Wernham, Trans. Linn. Soc. ser.2, Bot. 9(1916) 108; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 411, p.p.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 106. — Discalyxia ridleyana (Wernham) Markgr., Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1925) 283; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 188. — Alyxia fragrans Merr. & L.M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 24 (1943) 212; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 398, p.p. New Guinea.

  32. Alyxia rostrata (Markgr.) Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 411, p.p.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 108. — Discalyxia rostrata Markgr., Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1927) 282; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 187. — Discalyxia pullei Markgr., Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1927) 282; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 188. — Alyxia ridleyana auct. non Wernham: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 411, p.p. New Guinea.

  33. Alyxia royeniana Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 404; P. Royen, Alpine Fl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2854; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 109. New Guinea.

  34. Alyxia scabrida Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 184; Blumea 23 (1977) 397, p.p.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 108. — Alyxia clemensiae Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 396, p.p. (not including type). New Guinea.

  35. Alyxia semipallescens F. Muell.,Trans. Roy. Soc. Victoria 1 (1889) 28; Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 183; Blumea 23 (1977) 403, p.p.; P. Royen, Alpine Fl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2852, p.p.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 112. New Guinea.

  36. Alyxia sleumeri Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 409 (but not including all paratypes).; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 120. — Alyxia pugioauct. non Markgr.: Kaneh. & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 491. — Alyxia sogerensis auct. nonWemham ex S. Moore: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 407, p.p. New Guinea.

  37. Alyxia sogerensisWernham ex S. Moore, J. Bot. 61 (1923) suppl. 31; Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 182;Blumea 23 (1977) 407, p.p.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 121. — Alyxia pugio auct. non Markgr.: Merr. & L.M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 24 (1943) 211. New Guinea.

  38. Alyxia spicata R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 470; Roem. & Schult.,Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 439;Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 835; G. Don, Gen. Hist. (1837) 96; A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 346; F. Muell,Fragm. 6 (1868) 117; Benth.,Fl. Aust. 4 (1869) 308; Bailey, Syn. Queensl.Fl. (1883) 306; Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 7 (1886) 470; Bailey, Catal. PI. Queensl. (1890) 29; Queensl. Fl. 3 (1900) 980; Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 185;Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89 (1928)524; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 391;Wheeler,Fl.Kimberley (1992) 702; P.I.Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992)569; Fl. Aust. 28 (1996) 131.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 123.—Pulassarium spicatum (R.Br.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 417. — Gynopogon spicatus (R.Br.) Britten in Banks & Sol., 111. Austral. PI. Cook's Voy. (1901) 60. — Alyxia obtusifolia R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 470; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 439; Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 835; 4, 2 (1827) 109; G. Don, Gen. Hist. (1837) 96; A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 346; Benth., Fl. Aust. 4 (1869) 308; Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. (1883) 306; Catal. PI.Queensl. (1890)29; Queensl.Fl. 3 (1900) 980. — Pulassarium obtusifolium (R.Br.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PI. 2(1891)417. — Alyxia spanogheanaMiq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 409; Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 401. — Pulassarium spanogheanum (Miq.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PI. 2(1891)417.— Alyxia thyrsiflora Benth., Fl. Aust. 4 (1869) 309. — Alyxia thyrsifolia P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 570 sphalm. — Pulassarium thyrsiflorum (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PI. 2 (1891)417. — Alyxia acuminata auct. non Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 390, p.p. Lesser Sunda Islands, New Guinea, Australia.

  39. Alyxia subalpina Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 183; Blumea 23 (1977) 402; P. Royen, AlpineFl. New Guinea4 (1983) 2850.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 125. — Alyxia clemensiae Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 396, p.p. (not including type). — Alyxia defoliata subsp. orientalis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 399, p.p. (not including type). — Alyxia maluensis auct. non Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 395, p.p. — Alyxiapurpureoclada auct. non Kaneh. & Hatus.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 400, p.p. — Alyxia cacuminum auct. non Markgr.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 403, p.p.; P. Royen, Alpine Fl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2851, p.p. — Alyxia semipallescens auct. nonF. Muell.: Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 403, p.p.; P. Royen, Alpine ' Fl. New Guinea 4 (1983) 2852, p.p. New Guinea, Indonesia.

  40. Alyxia sulana Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 401.; David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 127. Sulawesi.

  41. Alyxia uniflora D.J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 130. Sulawesi.

  42. Alyxia vera D.J. Middleton, BLUMEA 45 (2000) 132. Moluccas.


AMPHINEURION (A.DC.) Pichon

  1. Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton, Taxon 55 (2006) 502; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 129. — Echites marginatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 16. — Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 77. - Echites reticulatus Wall., Numer. List 1662 (1829), nom. nud. [1662.2 in K-W]. - Echites acuminatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 15, non Ruiz. & Pav. (1799). — Aganosma acuminata G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 77. - Ichnocarpus acuminatus Fern.-Vill., Novis App. (1880) 131. — Amphineurion acuminata (Roxb.) Pichon, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 95 (1948) 215. — Echites apoxys Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. (1845) 522, nom. illeg. - Echites repens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 109. - Echites procumbens Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 78. — Holarrhena procumbens (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 27 (1905) 59. - Echites reticulatus Bojer, Hortus Maurit. (1837) 211, non Roth (1819). - Aganosma macrocarpa A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 434. - Ichnocarpus macrocarpus (A.DC.) Fern.-Vill., Novis App. (1880) 131. — Echites macrocarpus Wall., Numer. List 1662 (1829), nom. nud. - Aganosma velutina A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 434. - Ichnocarpus velutinus Fern.-Vill., Novis App. (1880) 131. — Amphineurion velutinum (A.DC.) Pichon, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 95 (1948) 215. - Aganosma euloba Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 447. India east to Maluku Archipelago.


ANODENDRON A.DC.

  1. Anodendron axillare Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 7 (1912) 331; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 136. - Chilocarpus denudatus auct. non Blume: Leeuwenb., Syst. Geogr. Pl. 72 (2002) 138, p.p. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan, Philippines.

  2. Anodendron candolleanum Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1848) t. 1309; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 137. - Ecdysanthera scandens Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (1844) 309. - Anodendron scandens (Hassk.) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 20 (1948) 191. - Dendrocharis rubescens Teijsm. & Binn., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 25 (1863) 403. — Anodendron rubescens (Teijsm. & Binn.) Teijsm. & Binn., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (1866) 127. — Ecdysanthera rubescens (Teijsm. & Binn.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1899) 398. - Anodendron spec. A Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 181, p.p. - Anodendron tenuiflorum auct. non (Miq.) Miq.: Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 236. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan, Philippines.

  3. Anodendron coriaceum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 455; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 137. - Echites coriaceus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1039. - Chonemorpha coriacea (Blume) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 76. - Anodendron coriaceum (Blume) Miq. var. salaccensis Hochr., Candollea 5 (1934) 182. - Anodendron gracilentum Markgr., Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 1 (1950) 26. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan, and Sumbawa.

  4. Anodendron nervosum Kerr, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1937 (1937) 93; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 138. - Micrechites formicinus Tsiang & P.T. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11 (1973) 385. - Anodendron formicina (Tsiang & P.T. Li) D.J. Middleton, Novon 4 (1994) 152. India to Indochina, Sumatra, Java.

  5. Anodendron paniculatum A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 444; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 139. - Echites paniculatus [Wall., Numer. List 1663 (1829), nom. nud.]; Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 17, non Poir. - Ichnocarpus paniculatus Moon, Cat. Pl. Ceylon (1824) 20, nom. nud. — Echites manubriatus Wall., Numer. List 1663 (1829), nom. nud. — Anodendron manubriatum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 7 (1912) 333. - Echites polyanthus Wall., Numer. List 1664 (1829), nom. nud. - Echites coriaceus Wall., Numer. List 1664a (1829), non Blume, nom. nud. - Anodendron rhinosporum Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1860) 194. - Tabernaemontana tenuiflora Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 554. — Anodendron tenuiflorum (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 140. - Anodendron moluccanum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 140. - Strophanthus balansae Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3, 5 (1893) 262. - Anodendron spec. A Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 181, p.p. - Anodendron spec. B Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 181. - Anodendron sutepense Kerr, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1937 (1937) 94. - Parsonsia bulusanensis Elmer ex Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3 (1923) 333, nom. illeg. (in synonymy of Anodendron manubriatum (= A. paniculatum)). India east to Maluku Archipelago.

  6. Anodendron pauciflorum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 669; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 141. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.

  7. Anodendron tubulosum (Ridl.) D.J. Middleton, Blumea 39 (1994) 89; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 142. - Micrechites tubulosus Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 5 (1925) 321. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.


BAHARUIA D.J.Middleton

  1. Baharuia gracilis D.J. Middleton, Blumea 40 (1995) 445; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 147. Sumatra, Kalimantan.


BEAUMONTIA Wall.

  1. Beaumontia multiflora Teijsm. & Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 4 (1853) 395; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 149. - Beaumontia campanulata K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 177. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Bali.


CATHARANTHUS G.Don

  1. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 95 (1837).

    • var. roseus.


CERBERA L.

  1. Cerbera manghas L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 208; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 160. - Tanghinia manghas (L.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 98. - Elcana seminuda Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 584. - Cerbera odollam auct. non p.p. Gaertn.: Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 638. - see also Leeuwenberg, Agric. Wageningen Univ. Pap. 98-3 (1999) 21. Seychelles to Australia and Oceania.

  2. Cerbera odollam Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2 (1791) 193; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 163. - Tanghinia odollam (Gaertn.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 98. - Cerbera lactaria Buch.-Ham. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1825) 642. - Cerbera dilatata Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 196. - Cerbera manghas auct. non L.: Burkill, Dict. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. 1 (1935) 514, p.p. South India and Sri Lanka east to Oceania.


CHILOCARPUS Blume

  1. Chilocarpus costatus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 393; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 168. - Chilocarpus diepenhorstii Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 552. - Chilocarpus maingayi Dyer ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 627. - Chilocarpus aurantiacus Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926 (1926) 73. - Chilocarpus cuneifolius Kerr, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1937 (1937) 40. - Chilocarpus spec. Kerr in Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1939) 425. - Chilocarpus costatus Miq. var. borneensis Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 161. Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.

  2. Chilocarpus decipiens Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 627; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 168. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.

  3. Chilocarpus denudatus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1025; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 169. - Hunteria atroviridis G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 105 (as atrovirens). — Hunteria atroviridis (G. Don) Wall. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 351. — Chilocarpus atroviridis (G. Don) Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 153. - Winchia atroviridis (G. Don) Kurz, Forest Fl. Burma 2 (1877) 170. - Chilocarpus malabaricus Bedd., Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 1 (1874) 38, t. 175. - Chilocarpus alyxiifolius Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 102. - Chilocarpus embelioides King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 401. - Chilocarpus minutiflorus King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 405. - Chilocarpus leytensis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 4 (1912) 1453. - Alstonia micrantha Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79 (1918) 95. - Chilocarpus amboinensis Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 162. South India east to New Guinea.

  4. Chilocarpus hirtus D.J. Middleton, Edinburgh J. Bot. 63 (2006) 202; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 172. Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  5. Chilocarpus obtusifolius Merr., Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 19 (1934) 188; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 172. - Chilocarpus obovatus Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 161. - Chilocarpus kuchingensis Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 163. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.

  6. Chilocarpus rostratus Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 165; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 173. - Chilocarpus tuberculatus Markgr. ex Leeuwenb., Syst. Geogr. Pl. 72 (2002) 156. Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.

  7. Chilocarpus suaveolens Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (1823) 23; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 175. - Chilocarpus suaveolens Blume var. cuneatus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 152. - Chilocarpus compositus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 152. - Chilocarpus densiflorus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 152. - Chilocarpus suaveolens Blume var. salaccensis Hochr., Candollea 5 (1934) 176. Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan.

  8. Chilocarpus vernicosus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 152; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 177. - Chilocarpus globuliferus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 152. - Chilocarpus enervis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 626. - Chilocarpus cantleyi King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 403. - Chilocarpus nigrescens King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 404. - Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan.


CHONEMORPHA G.Don

  1. Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Peradeniya) 11 (1929) 203; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 179. - Echites fragrans Moon, Cat. Pl. Ceylon (1824) 20. — Pergularia tomentosa Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab. 10 (1818) 23, non L. (1767). — Chonemorpha rheedei Ridl., Agric. Bull. Straits Fed. Malay States 10 (1911) 146. - Chonemorpha grandiflora G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 76. — Chonemorpha grandiflora M.R. Almeida & S.M. Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 90 (1994) 427, isonym. — Echites grandiflora Roth in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 393, non G. Mey (1818). - Chonemorpha macrophylla G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 76. - Echites macrophyllus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 13, non Kunth (1819). - Chonemorpha macrophylla G. Don var. grandis A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 430. - Cercocoma macrantha Teijsm. & Binn., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (1866) 126, nom. nud. - Chonemorpha griffithii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 662. - Chonemorpha grandieriana [Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 296, nom. nud.] Pierre ex Spire, Contr. Apocyn. (1905) 72. - Beluttakaka grandieriana Pierre ex L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 297, nom. nud. - Chonemorpha harmandiana Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 296, nom. nud. — Beluttakaka harmandiana Pierre in L. Planch., Prod. Apocyn. (1894) 296, nom. nud. - Chonemorpha yersinii Spire [Bull. Écon. Indochine 12 (1902) 859, nom. nud.] ex Vernet, Bull. Écon. Indochine 35 (1904) 1197. - Chonemorpha elliptica Merr. & Rolfe, Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 3 (1908) 121. - Tabernaemontana elliptica Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 115 (as eliptica), non Thunb. (1784). - Chonemorpha blancoi Merr., Sp. Blancoan. (1918) 312. - Chonemorpha penangensis Ridl., Agric. Bull. Straits Fed. Malay States 10 (1911) 147. - Chonemorpha macrantha Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1249. - Chonemorpha valvata Chatterjee, Kew Bull. 1947 (1947) 51. - Chonemorpha mollis auct. non Miq.: Furtado, Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 9 (1935) 116, p.p. India and Sri Lanka east to Sulawesi and Lesser Sunda Islands (to East Timor).

  2. Chonemorpha verrucosa (Blume) D.J. Middleton, Novon 3 (1993) 455; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 181. - Tabernaemontana verrucosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1029. - Triadenia verrucosa (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 459. — Trachelospermum verrucosum (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1899) 400. — Rhynchodia verrucosa (Blume) Woodson, Sunyatsenia 3 (1936) 102. - Echites rhynchospermus Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1 (1830) 43, t. 49. — Rhynchospermum wallichii A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 431 (as Rhyncospermum). — Cercocoma wallichii (A.DC.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 445; Kurz, Forest Fl. Burma 2 (1877) 187. — Rhynchodia wallichii (Miq.) Benth. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 667. - Rhynchodia rhynchosperma (Wall.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 173. - Rhynchospermum ellipticum A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 431 (as Rhyncospermum). — Echites ellipticus Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 75, non Thunb. (1819). — Echites verticalis Buch.-Ham. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 431, nom. nud. (in synonymy of Rhyncospermum ellipticum). - Rhynchodia capusii Pierre ex Spire, Contr. Apocyn. (1905) 102. - Rhynchodia fragrans Pierre ex Spire, Contr. Apocyn. (1905) 108. - Rhynchodia pierrei Spire, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 52 (1905) 556. - Chonemorpha elastica Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 4 (1909) 81. - Rhynchodia pauciflora Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 2 (1933) 1243. - Rhynchodia pierrei Spire var. annamensis Pit., Fl. Indo-Chine 2 (1933) 1241. - Trachelospermum slootenii Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 4 (1939) 29. — Rhynchodia slootenii (Tsiang) Tsiang ex Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 389. India to Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan.


CYNANCHUM L.

  1. Cynanchum muricatum (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 436 (1899).

  2. Cynanchum ovalifolium Wight, Contr. Bot. India: 57 (1834).


DISCHIDIA R.Br.

  1. Dischidia aberrans Schltr., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 5 (1916).

  2. Dischidia acutifolia Maingay ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 51 (1883).

  3. Dischidia acutifolia subsp. acutifolia.

  4. Dischidia albida Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 4: 46 (1854).

  5. Dischidia albiflora Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 4: 47 (1854).

  6. Dischidia alternans Schltr., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 6 (1916).

  7. Dischidia atropurpurea Schltr., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 7 (1916).

  8. Dischidia bengalensis Colebr., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12: 357 (1818).

  9. Dischidia cochleata Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 1060 (1826).

  10. Dischidia dolichantha Schltr., Beibl. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 92: 8 (1908).

  11. Dischidia hirsuta (Blume) Decne. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 8: 632 (1844).

  12. Dischidia hoyella Omlor, Gen. Revis. Marsdenieae: 143 (1998).

  13. Dischidia imbricata (Blume) Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 519 (1840).

  14. Dischidia indragirensis Schltr., Beibl. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 92: 9 (1908).

  15. Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr., Interpr. Herb. Amboin.: 437 (1917).

  16. Dischidia micrantha Becc., Malesia 2: 270 (1886).

  17. Dischidia nummularia R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 461 (1810).

  18. Dischidia polyphylla Ridl., J. Malayan Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 1: 78 (1923).

  19. Dischidia punctata (Blume) Decne. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 8: 631 (1844).

  20. Dischidia subulata Warb., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 345 (1907).

    • subsp. subulata.


DYERA Hook.f.

  1. Dyera costulata (Miq.) Hook.f., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19 (1882) 293; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 187. - Alstonia costulata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 556. - Alstonia eximia Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 555. - Alstonia grandifolia Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 555. - Dyera laxiflora Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 644. - Dyera spec. indet. Coode et al., Checklist Pl. Brunei (1996) 27. Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan.

  2. Dyera polyphylla (Miq.) Steenis, Blumea 14 (1967) 316; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 189. - Dyera lowii Hook.f., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19 (1882) 293. - Dyera borneensis Baill., Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1 (1888) 751. Sumatra and Kalimantan.


EPIGYNUM Wight

  1. Epigynum ridleyi King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 502; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 195. - Epigynum forbesii King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 503. - Epigynum borneense Merr., J. Malayan Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 1 (1923) 27. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.


EUCORYMBIA Stapf

  1. Eucorymbia alba Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 28 (1903) t. 2764; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 196. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.


GENIANTHUS Hook.f.

  1. Genianthus crassifolius (Wight) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 16 (1883).

  2. Genianthus maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 16 (1883).

  3. Genianthus trullatus Klack., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 117: 453 (1995).


HOYA R.Br.

  1. Hoya australis R.Br. ex J.Traill, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7: 28 (1830); Hill, Telopea 3: 250 (1988); Smith, Fl. Vit. Nova 4: 118 (1988); Forster & Liddle, Austrobaileya 3: 508 (1991); Liddle & Forster, Asklepios 102: 6 (2008); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 35 (2017). Australian, Borneo, Papuasia and Melanesia.

  2. Hoya andalensis Kloppenb. Fraterna 18 (1): 1 (Anonymous 2005); Rahayu & Rodda 2019: 2. Endemic to Sumatra. W SUMATRA.

  3. Hoya aeschynanthoides Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40 (Beibl. 92): 13 (1908); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 35 (2017). Indonesia, Borneo, Koetei, auf Bäumen am Long Dett, August 1901, Schlechter, R.13550 (lectotype B [B100277178], designated here).

  4. Hoya batutikarensis R. Ahmad, S. Rahayu & Rodda. Phytotaxa 502 (1): 81 (2021). Endemik to Sulawesi.

  5. Hoya beccarii Rodda & Simonsson Webbia 68: 13 (Rodda & Simonsson Juhonewe 2013). Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  6. Hoya brevialata Kleijn & Donkelaar, Blumea 46(3): 467 (2001). Native to Sulawesi.

  7. Hoya brooksii Ridl. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information 1925: 85 (Ridley 1925). Sumatra.

  8. Hoya campanulata Blume Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië: 1064 (Blume 1826). — Cystidianthus campanulatus (Blume) Hasskarl, Adnotationes de Plantis quibusdam Javanicis nonnullisque japonicis, haud rite cognitis, e Catalogo Horti Bogoriensis excerptae. Accedunt nunnullae Novae Species: 125 (Hasskarl 1843). — Physostelma campanulatum (Blume) Decne., Asclepiadeae: 633 (Decaisne 1844). Sumatra, Java.

  9. Hoya caudata Hook.f. The Flora of British India 4: 60 (Hooker 1883); Rintz, Malayan Nat. J. 30:

  10. 484 (1978); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 36 (2017). — Hoya crassifolia Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 61: 30 (1912), nom. illeg., non Hoya crassifolia (J.Jacq.) Haw. – Hoya caudata Hook.f. var. crassifolia Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3: 395 (1923). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Malacca.

  11. Hoya camphorifolia Warb., in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. i. 129 (1904). Native to Philippines.

  12. Hoya coriacea Blume Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië: 1063 (Blume 1826); Rintz, Malayan Nat. J. 30 : 495 (1978); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 37 (2017). – Hoya brunoniana Wight, Contr. Bot. India 37 (1834). – Hoya fraterna Blume, Rumphia 4: 32 (1849) [late October 1849]; Blume, Mus. Bot. 1(3): 44 (1849) [November 1849]. – Hoya occlusa Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 61: 31 (1912). – Hoya angustisepala Elmer ex C.M.Burton, Hoyan 8(4) pt 2: 6 (1987). – Hoya mindanaensis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 10: 3585 (1938), nom. inval. (missing Latin description). Indonesian, Sumatra, Java, Philippines, Davao, Mindanao, Todaya, Mt. Apo, Sibulan River, 3000 ft.

  13. Hoya coronaria Blume Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië: 1063 (Blume 1826); Kleijn & Donkelaar, BLUMEA 46 (2001) 469; M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 37 (2017). — Coronariaariadnes punicea Rumph., Herb. Amboin. 5 (1750)464, t. 172.] — Asclepias sussuela Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2 (1832) 31. — Hoya ariadna Decne. in A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 635. — Hoya corona-ariadnes Blume,Rumphia 4 (1849) 31. — Hoya sussuela (Roxb.) Merr., Interpr. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 438. — Hoya velutina Wight, Contr. Bot. Ind. (1834) 35. — Hoya grandiflora Blume ex Decne. in A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 635. — Hoya speciosa Decne. in A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 634. — Hoya hollrungii Warb., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3 (1907) 342. — Eriostemma coronaria (Blume) Kloppenb. & Gilding, Fraterna 14 (2): 1 (Anonymous 2001). — Eriostemma obtusifolioides Gilding & T.Green, Fraterna 22(3): 5 (2009). Hoya coronaria has an extremely wide rangeand can be found in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, throughout the Indonesian archipelago and in Peninsular Malaysia. It is unclear whether it also occurs in the Philippines.

  14. Hoya danumensis subsp. amarii S.Rahayu & Rodda, EJT 2019: 4. Endemic to Sumatra. N SUMATRA.

  15. Hoya deykeae T.Green Fraterna 13 (1): 15 (Green 2000) [published as “H. deykei”]; EJT 2019: 7. Sumatra. N SUMATRA.

  16. Hoya diversifolia Blume Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië: 1064 (Blume 1826); (1826); Rintz, Malayan Nat. J. 30: 517 (1978); Jagtap & Singh, Fasc. Fl. India 24: 98 (1999); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 40 (2017). — Hoya heterophylla nom. nud. (based on L sheet number 989168-147). — Hoya crassipes Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21: 261 (1848). — Hoya orbiculata Wall. ex Wight & Arn. in Wight, Contr. Bot. India 36 (1834). — Hoya esculenta Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3: 176 (1936), nom. illeg. — Hoya zollingeriana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 518 (1857) [20 Aug. 1857]. — Hoya liangii Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3(2–3): 177 (1936). — Hoya el-nidicus Kloppenb., Fraterna 1991(3) supplement: I (1991). — Hoya diversifolia Blume subsp. el-nidicus (Kloppenb.) Kloppenb., Fraterna 14(1): 13 (2001). — Hoya persicinicoronaria Shao Y.He & P.T.Li, Novon 19: 475 (2009). China, Myanmar, Philipine, Indonesia, Sumatra, Java.

  17. Hoya dolichosparte Schltr., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34,2 (1916) 13; Kleijn & Donkelaar, BLUMEA 46 (2001) 473. Currently available data suggest that H. dolichosparte is endemic to Sulawesi.

  18. Hoya elliptica Hook.f. The Flora of British India 4: 58 (Hooker 1883); Rintz, Malayan Nat. J. 30: 505 (1978); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 41 (2017). Malacca, Malaysia, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.

  19. Hoya fauziana subsp. angulata Rodda, A.L.Lamb, Gokusing & S.Rahayu Blumea 63: 144 (Rodda et al. 2018). Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  20. Hoya finlaysonii Wight Contributions to the Botany of India: 38 (Wight 1834). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.

  21. Hoya forbesii King & Gamble Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 74 (2): 574 (King & Gamble 1908); Rintz, Malayan Nat. J. 30: 517 (1978); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 42 (2017). Indonesia, Sumatra. BENGKULU (Mt Kaba).

  22. Hoya glabra Schltr. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40 (92): 14 (Schlechter 1908). Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  23. Hoya imperialis Lindl. Edwards’s Botanical Register 32: tab. 68 (Lindley 1846). Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  24. Hoya imbricata Decne. in A. DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 637; Koord., Philipp. J. Sci. 15 (1919) 263, incl. forma typica, nom. inval.; DC. in Deless.,Icon. Sel. PI. 5 (1846) 37, t. 90; Kleijn & Donkelaar, BLUMEA 46 (2001) 473. — Conchophyllum maximum H. Karst.,Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 12 (1895) 158. — Dischidia maxima Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1898) 534. — Hoya maxima (H. Karst.) Warb., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3 (1907) 342, nonTeijsm. & Binn. (1863). — Hoya imbricata Decne. forma basi-subcordata Koord., Philipp. J. Sci. 15 (1919) 264, t. 2, 3. — Hoya pseudomaxima Koord.,Philipp. J. Sci. 15 (1919) 265. Hoya imbricata was originally reported from N Sulawesi only (Karsten, 1895; Koorders, 1920). Nevertheless, this species is quite common in central Sulawesi from 0 to 600 m altitude and furtherinvestigations willprobably show that it occurs in the rest ofSulawesi as well.The species also occurs throughout the Philippine archipelago.

  25. Hoya incurvula Schltr., Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2. 34(2): 14 (1916). Endemic to Sulawesi.

  26. Hoya ischnopus Schltr. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie (1913) 50: 111; Roland P.P.A, Zulfadli, S.Rahayu & Rodda, Phytotaxa 502 (1): 80 (2021). — Dischidia hellwigii Warburg. Hellwigianae. Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie (1893) 18 : 205. — Hoya hellwigiana Warburg Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis (1907) 3: 341. New Guinea, Sulawesi.

  27. Hoya isabelchanae Rodda & Simonsson, PhytoKeys 68: 45–50 (2016). Sulawesi

  28. Hoya kastbergii Kloppenb. Fraterna 16 (4): 1 (Anonymous 2003). Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  29. Hoya lacunosa Blume Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië: 1063 (Blume 1826). — Otostemma lacunosum (Blume) Blume, Rumphia 4: 30 (Blume 1849b). Sumatra, Java.

  30. Hoya lasiantha (Korth. ex Blume) Miq. Flora van Nederlandsch Indie 2: 526 (Miquel 1857). — Plocostemma lasianthum Korth ex Blume, Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavum 1: 60 (Blume 1849a). Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  31. Hoya latifolia G.Don A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 127 (Don 1837). — H. macrophylla Wight, Contributions to the Botany of India: 38 (Wight 1834), non Blume, Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië: 1063 (Blume 1826). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java.

  32. Hoya mitrata Kerr nom. cons. Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 35: tab. 3406 (Kerr 1940). Sumatra, Thailand.

  33. Hoya minahassae Schltr., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34, 2 (1916) 15; Kleijn & Donkelaar, BLUMEA 46 (2001) 477. Sulawesi.

  34. Hoya multiflora Blume Catalogus van eenige der merkwaardigste zoo in-als uit-heemsche gewassen, te vinden in 's lands plantentuin te Buitenzorg: 49 (Blume 1823). — Centrostemma multiflorum (Blume) Decne., Annales des Sciences naturelles, Botanique, sér. 2, 9: 272 (Decaisne 1838). — Cyrtoceras multiflorum (Blume) Heynh., Nomenclator Botanicus Hortensis: 183 (Heynhold 1840). Sumatra, Java.

  35. Hoya myrmecopaKleijn & Van Donkelaar, BLUMEA 46 (2001) 477. Sulawesi.

  36. Hoya obtusifolia Wight Contributions to the Botany of India: 38 (Wight 1834). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.

  37. Hoya occultata S.Rahayu & Rodda, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 57(4-6): 332 (2020). Endemic to Sulawesi.

  38. Hoya omlorii (Livsh. & Meve) L.Wanntorp & Meve Willdenowia 41: 99 (Wanntorp & Meve 2011). — Clemensiella omlorii Livsh. & Meve, Edinburgh Journal of Botany 66 (3): 454 (Meve et al. 2009) [published as “Clemensiella omlori”]. Sumatra. ACEH.

  39. Hoya phyllura O.Schwartz, Mitt. Inst. Bot. Hamburg 7: 26 (1931); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 51 (2017). – Hoya linusii A.L.Lamb, Gavrus & Emoi, Sandakania 19: 50 (2014) [2 May 2014]. Indonesia, Borneo, Lebang Hara, Malaysia

  40. Hoya pallilimba Kleijn & Van Donkelaar, BLUMEA 46 (2001) 479. Sulawesi.

  41. Hoya parviflora Wight Contributions to the Botany of India: 37 (Wight 1834). - H. variifolia Ridl., Bulletin of miscellaneous information, Royal Gardens, Kew 1926: 74 (Ridley 1926). Sumatra.

  42. Hoya parvifolia Schltr. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40 (92): 15 (Schlechter 1908). RIAU.

  43. Hoya purpurascens Teijsm. & Binn. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 25: 407 (Teijsmann & Binnendijk 1863). LAMPUNG.

  44. Hoya purpureofusca Hook. Botanical Magazine 76: tab. 4520 (Hooker 1850). — H. cinnamomifolia var. purpureofusca (Hook.) Kloppenb., Fraterna 14 (1): 12 (Kloppenburg 2001). Sumatra, Java.

  45. Hoya revoluta Wight ex Hook.f. The Flora of British India 4: 55 (Hooker 1883). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.

  46. Hoya rhodostele Ridl. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 1: 77 (Ridley 1923). N SUMATRA.

  47. Hoya rigidifolia S.Rahayu & Rodda, EJT 2019: 12. Endemic to Sumatra. W SUMATRA (Mentawai).

  48. Hoya rintzii Rodda, Simonsson & S.Rahayu Webbia 69: 44 (Rodda et al. 2014). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.

  49. Hoya rundumensis (T.Green) Rodda & Simonsson Webbia 68: 13 (Rodda & Simonsson Juhonewe 2013). — H. plicata subsp. rundumensis T.Green (Green 2010: 19). Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  50. Hoya sammannaniana A.L.Lamb, Gavrus, Emoi & Gokusing, Sandakania 19: 77 (2014); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 41 (2017). Borneo. Malaysia, Sabah, Beluran, Paitan River.

  51. Hoya sarcophylla Ridl. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums 8 (4): 62 (Ridley 1917). JAMBI.

  52. Hoya scortechinii King & Gamble Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 74 (2): 567 (King & Gamble 1908). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.

  53. Hoya sigillatis T.Green subsp. sigillatis Fraterna 17 (3): 2 (Green 2004). Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  54. Hoya solokensis S.Rahayu & Rodda, EJT 2019 14. Endemic to Sumatra. W SUMATRA.

  55. Hoya sulawesiana S.Rahayu & Rodda, Taiwania 65(2): 210 (2020). Endemic to Sulawesi.

  56. Hoya sumatrana S.Rahayu & Rodda, EJT 2019: 15. Endemic to Sumatra. LAMPUNG.

  57. Hoya surisana Rodda and S.Rahayu, Taiwania 65(2): 212 (2020). Endemic to Sulawesi.

  58. Hoya tomataensis T.Green & Kloppenb., Fraterna 17(2): 1 (-5; figs.) (2004). Endemic to Sulawesi.

  59. Hoya uncinata Teijsm. & Binn. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 25: 408 (Teijsmann & Binnendijk 1863). - H. padangensis Schltr., Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt 34 (2): 15 (Schlechter 1916). Sumatra. W SUMATRA, S SUMATRA.

  60. Hoya undulata S.Rahayu & Rodda, Gard. Bull. Singapore 67: 86 (2015); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 54 (2017). Indonesia, West Kalimantan.

  61. Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G.Don A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 128 (Don 1837); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 54 (2017). — Sperlingia verticillata Vahl, Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet 6: 113 (Vahl 1810). — Hoya acuta Haw., Revis. Pl. Succ. 4 (1821). — Hoya pallida Lindl., Bot. Reg. 11: t. 951 (1826), non Hoya pallida Dalzell & Gibson (1861). — Hoya nicobarica R.Br. ex J.Traill, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7: 28 (1830). — Hoya angustifolia J.Traill, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7: 29 (1830). – Hoya pottsii J.Traill var. angustifolia (J.Traill) Tsiang & P.T.Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 124 (1974). – Hoya pottsii J.Traill, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 7: 25 (1830). – Hoya hookeriana Wight, Contr. Bot. India 37 (1834). — Hoya parasitica Wall. ex Wight, Contr. Bot. India 37 (1834); Veldkamp et al., Blumea 40: 427 (1995); Jagtap & Singh, Fasc. Fl. India 24: 114 (1999). – Asclepias parasitica Roxb., Hort. Bengal. 20 (1814), nom. inval. – Asclepias parasitica Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 42 (1832), non Asclepias parasitica Wall. ex Hornem. (1819). – Hoya opposita (Vahl) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 128 (1838); Veldkamp et al., Blumea 40: 427 (1995). – Sperlingia opposita Vahl, Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6: 114 (1810). – Hoya ridleyi King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 74(2): 575 (1908);

  62. Rintz, Malayan Nat. J. 30: 514 (1978). – Hoya parasitica Wight var. geoffrayi Costantin in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 136 (1912); Veldkamp et al., Blumea 40: 427 (1995). – Hoya parasitica Wight var. spirei Costantin in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 136 (1912); Veldkamp et al., Blumea 40: 427 (1995). – Hoya balansae Costantin in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 136 (1912). – Hoya globiflora Ridl., J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 5: 164 (1915); Rintz, Malayan Nat. J. 30: 514 (1978) (as ‘globifera’); Veldkamp et al., Blumea 40: 427 (1995). – Hoya obscurinervia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 263 (1923). – Hoya amoena Bakh.f., Blumea 6: 380 (1950) – Hoya recurvula Kloppenb., Fraterna 13(4): 9 (2000). – Hoya wibergiae Kloppenb., Fraterna 14(1): 5 (2001). – Hoya ubudensis Kloppenb. & Yap, Asklepios 108: 7 (2010). – Hoya recurvula Kloppenb. subsp. bokorensis Kloppenb. & Yap, Asklepios 108: 6 (2010). – Hoya bawanglingensis Shao Y.He & P.T.Li, Novon 19: 357 (2009). – Hoya amoena Bakh.f. subsp. bogorensis T.Green & Kloppenb., Hoya New 2(4): 14 (2014) – Sperlingia tetraphylla nom. nud. annotation on [C10006736]. – Hoya albens nom. nud. in Miller, Bristol Nursery Cat. 55 (1826). – Hoya lanceolata Donn, Hort. Cantabrig., ed. 2: 92 (1826), nom. nud. non Hoya lanceolata Wall. ex D.Don (1825). Indonesia, Borneo, Cambodja, Bokor, cultivated in Singapore, China, Hainan Province, Bawangling, Philippines, Palawan, Estrella waterfall area, cultivated in USA, California, Fresno, Malaysia? [Southern Malaysia], cultivated in USA, California, Fresno, Beoeki, Poeger, India, Macao.

  63. Hoya vitellinoides Bakh.f. Blumea 6: 381 (Bakhuizen van den Brink 1950). Sumatra, Java.

  64. Hoya vitellina Blume Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavum 1: 45 (Blume 1849a); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 58 (2017). – Hoya fuscomarginata N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 278 (1910). Sumatra, Java.

  65. Hoya waymaniae Kloppenb., Fraterna 1995(2): 8 (1995); M. Rodda, Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(1): 58 (2017). Borneo, Malaysia, Sabah, cultivated, USA, California, Fresno (holotype UC missing); Indonesia, Kalimantan Timur, surroundings of Long Sungai Barang.

  66. Hoya wrayi King & Gamble Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 74 (2): 579 (King & Gamble 1908). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia.

HUNTERIA Roxb.

  1. Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.) Gardner ex Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1860) 191; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 201. - Cameraria zeylanica Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 24. - Hunteria corymbosa Roxb. var. zeylanica (Retz.) Hallier f., Jahrb. Hamburg Wiss. Anst. 17, Beih. 3 (1900) 195. - Hunteria corymbosa Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 531. - Tabernaemontana salicifolia Wall., Bot. Reg. 15 (1829) t. 1273. - Hunteria corymbosa Roxb. var. salicifolia (Wall.) Hallier f., Jahrb. Hamburg Wiss. Anst. 17, Beih. 3 (1900) 195. - Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.) Gardner ex Thwaites var. salicifolia (Wall.) Pichon, Bol. Soc. Brot. sér. 2, 27 (1953) 111. - Hunteria lanceolata Wall. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 350. - Gynopogon lanceolatum (Wall. ex A.DC.) Kurz, Forest Fl. Burma 2 (1877) 177. - Hunteria roxburghiana Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1848) t. 1294. - Hunteria corymbosa Roxb. var. roxburghiana (Wight) Trimen ex Gamble, Fl. Madras 2 (1923) 808. - Hunteria africana K. Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C (1895) 317. - Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.) Gardner ex Thwaites var. africana (K. Schum.) Pichon, Bol. Soc. Brot. sér. 2, 27 (1953) 112. - Hunteria legocii Livera, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Peradeniya) 10 (1926) 140. Eas Africa to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia.


ICHNOCARPUS R.Br.

  1. Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton, Hort. Kew ed. 2, 2 (1811) 69; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 204. - Apocynum frutescens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 213; Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1798) 1260. - Echites frutescens [Wall., Numer. List 1674] Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 12. - Quirivelia frutescens (L.) M.R. & S.M. Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 90 (1994) 427. - Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton var. genuina Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46 (1877) 256. - Apocynum crassifolium Salisb., Prodr. (1796) 149. - Echites malabaricus Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 342. - Periploca palvalli Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab. (1818) 14, 24, 35. - Chonemorpha malabarica (Lam.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 76. - Gardenia volubilis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 148. - Ichnocarpus volubilis (Lour.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21 (1922) 506. - Quirivelia zeylanica Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 6 (1804) 42, nom. illeg. - Tabernaemontana parviflora Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 5 (1817) 276. - Echites affinis Roth in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 393. - Aganosma affinis (Roem. & Schult.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 77. - Ichnocarpus affinis (Roem. & Schult.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 179. - Echites caryophyllatus Roth in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 392. - Echites ferrugineus Horsf. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 796. - Echites bantamensis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1040; A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 478. - Chonemorpha bantamensis (Blume) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1838) 76. - Ichnocarpus bantamensis (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 449. - Quirivelia bantamensis (Blume) Williams, Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 5 (1905) 949. - Echites caudatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 106, non L. (1767); Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 77. - Ichnocarpus ovatifolius A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 435. - Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton var. ovatifolius (A.DC.) Deb, Fl. Tripura State 2 (1983) 18. - Ichnocarpus moluccanus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 448. - Ichnocarpus dasycalyx Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 449. - Ichnocarpus leptodictyus F. Muell., Fragm. 6 (1868) 118. - Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton var. leptodictyus (F. Muell.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89 (1928) 528. - Gardenia sinensis Lour. ex B.A. Gomes, Mem. Acad. Real. Sci. Lisboa, 2 Cl. Sci. Moraes n.s. 4, 1 (1868) 28. - Springia indica Müll.Arg. in Van Heurck, Observ. Bot. (1871) 143. - Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton var. pubescens Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46 (1877) 256. - Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton var. parvifolia Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 670. - Ichnocarpus navesii Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21 (1884) 313, nom. nud. - Carruthersia daronensis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 4 (1912) 1450. - Toxocarpus makilingensis Elmer ex Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3 (1923) 336, nom. inval. (only in synonymy). - Ichnocarpus sogerensis Wernham ex S. Moore, J. Bot. 61, Suppl. (1923) 33. - Ichnocarpus volubilis (Lour.) Merr. forma sogerensis (Wernham ex S. Moore) Markgr., Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1926) 288. - Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton forma sogerensis (Wernham ex S. Moore) Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 207. - Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton forma pubescens Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 208. - Micrechites sinensis Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11 (1931) 215. - Ichnocarpus microcalyx Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1254. - Ichnocarpus oxypetalus Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1256. Pakistan east to New Guinea and Australia.


  2. Ichnocarpus archboidianus (Merr. & L.M. Perry) P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 541; D.J. Middelton, Blumea 39 (1994) 76. — Micrechites archboldiana Merr. & L.M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 24 (1943) 214. Indonesia, Irian Jaya.

  3. Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton, Hort. Kew ed. 2, 2 (1811)69; Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 635; G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1838) 78; A.DC., Prod. 8 (1844) 435; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 448; Thwaites, Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 194; Benth.,Fl. Austral. 4 (1869) 315; Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 46 (1877)256; For. Fl. Burma 2 (1877) 185; Hook. f„ Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 669; Warb., Fl. Kaiser Wilhelmsland (1889) 407; Coll. & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. 28 (1890) 86; Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 3 (1895) 142; F.M. Bailey, Queensland Fl. 3 (1900) 994; King & Gamble, J. As. Soc. Beng. 74 (1907) 493; Cooke, Fl. Bombay 2 (1908) 142; Craib, Contr. Fl. Siam (1912) 131; Haines, Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1922) 546; Gamble, Fl. Madras (1923) 820; Ridley, Fl. Mai. Pen. 2 (1923)'364; Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. 61 (1927) 207; Pitard,Fl. G6n. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1255; Kerr, Fl. Siam. Enum. 2 (1939) 466; Bakh. f„ Blumea 6 (1950) 387; Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 239; Stewart, Fl. West Pakistan (1972) 564; Huber, Fl. Ceylon 1, 1 (1973) 27; Ramaswamy & Razi, Fl. Bangalore Dist. (1973) 450; Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan Dist., Karnataka, India (1976) 435; Tsiang & P.T. Li, Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 63 (1977) 225; Chater, Enum. Flow. PI. Nepal 3 (1982) 83; Streimann, PI. Upper Watut Watershed P.N.G. (1983) 86; Huber, Fl. Ceylon 4 (1983) 71; Ly, Feddes Repert. 97 (1986) 675; Seshagiri Rao, Fl. Goa, Diu, Daman, Dadra & Nagarhaveli 2 (1986)257; Singh, Id. Eastern Karnataka 1 (1988) 403; Elliot & Jones, Encycl. Austral. Pl. 5 (1990) 413; P.T. Li, J. South China Agric. Univ. 11 (1990) 32; P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 536; D.J. Middelton, Blumea 39 (1994) 77. — Apocynum frutescens L., Sp. PI. (1753) 213; Willd., Sp. PI. 1 (1798) 1260. — Echites [Wall., Cat. Frutescens no. 1674] Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 12. — Apocynum crassifolium Salisb., Prod. (1796) 149, nom. illeg. — Gardenia volubilisLour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 148. — Ichnocarpus volubilis (Lour.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21 (1922) 506; Enum. Philipp. Row. PL 3 (1923) 336; Markgr., Nova Guinea 14 (1926) 288; Merr., PL Elm. Born. (1929) 255; Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. n.s. 24, 2 (1935) 313; Kerr, Fl. Siam. Enum. 2 (1939) 468; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 240; Ly, Feddes Repert. 97 (1986) 675. — Quirivelia zeylanica Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 6 (1804) 42, nom. illeg. — Tabernaemontana parviflora Poir. in Lam.,Encycl. Suppl. 5 (1817) 276. — Periploca palvalli Dennst., Schliissel zum Hortus Indicus Malabaricus (1818) 14, 24, 35. — Echites affinis Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 393. — Aganosma affinis (Roem. & Schult.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1837) 77. — Ichnocarpus affinis (Roem. & Schult.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 179. — Echites caryophyllata Roth, Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 133. — Echites ferrugineaHorsf. in Roem. & Schult.,Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 796. — Echites bantamensis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1040. — Chonemorpha bantamensis (Blume) G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1838) 76. — Ichnocarpus bantamensis (Blume) Miq., H. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 449. — Quirivelia bantamensis (Blume) Williams, Bull. Herb. Bois. ser. 2, 5 (1905) 949. — Echites caudataBlanco, H.Filip. (1837) 106; ed. 2 (1845) 77; non L. — Merrill (1918) has designatedMerrill Sp. Blanco. — Ichnocarpus ovatifolius A. DC., Prod. 8 (1844) 435; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 449; Hook, f.,Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 670; Vidal, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 186; Koord., Versl. Bot. Dienstreis Mi-nahasa (1898) 528; Prain, Beng. PI. (1903) 680; King & Gamble, J. As. Soc. Beng. 74 (1907) 494; Merr., Sp. Blanc. (1918) 313; Haines, Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1922) 546; Ridley, Fl. Mai. Pen. 2 (1923) 364; Pitard, Fl. Gdn. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1254. — Ichnocarpusfrutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton var. ovatifolius (A. DC.) D.B. Deb, Fl. Tripura State 2 (1983) 18. — Ichnocarpus moluccanus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 448. — Echites trichonema Zipp., Linnaea 15 (1841) 324, nom. nud. — Ichno-carpus dasycalyx Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 449. — Ichnocarpus leptodictyus F. Muell.,Fragm. 6 (1868) 118. — Ichnocarpusfrutescens var. leptodictyus (F.Muell.) Domin, Bibl. Bot. 89 (1928) 528. — Gardenia sinensis Gomes, Mem. Acad. Sci. Lisb. SI. Sci. Pol. Mer. Bel. n.s. 4, 1 (1868) 28. *— Springia indica Mull. Arg. in Van Heurck., Obs. Bot. PI. Nov. (1871) 143. — Ichnocarpus fru-tescens var. pubescens Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 46 (1877) 256; For. Fl. Burma 2 (1877) 185. — Ich-nocarpus navesii Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. 21 (1884) 313, nom. nud. — Ichnocarpus frutescens var. par-vifolia Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 670. — Carruthersia daronensisElmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 4 (1912) 1450. — Toxocarpus makilingensis Elmer ex Merr., Enum. Philipp. Flow. PI. 3 (1923) 336, nom. illeg., in synonymy of Ichnocarpus volubilis (Lour.)Merr.; Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 10 (1939) 3810, in synonymy of Ichnocarpus ovatifolius A. DC.— Ichnocarpus sogerensis Wernham ex S.Moore, J. Bot. 61, Suppl. (1923) 33. — Ichnocarpus volubilis f. sogerensis (Wernham ex S. Moore) Markgr., Nova Guinea 14 (1926)288. — Ichnocarpus frutescens f. sogerensis (Wernham ex S.Moore) Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. 61 (1927) 207. — Ichnocarpusfrutescens f.pubescens Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. 61 (1927) 208, nom. illeg.; Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3 (1936) 156; Streimann, PI. Upper Watut Watershed P.N.G. (1983) 86; Tsiang & P.T. Li, Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 63 (1977) 227. — Micrechites sinensis Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11 (1931) 215. — Ichnocarpus oxypetalus Pi-tard, Fl. Gdn. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1256. — Ichnocarpus microcalyx Pitard,Fl. G6n. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1254; Kerr, Fl. Siam. Enum. 2 (1939) 467. Pakistan (Khaipur), India (Andhra Pradesh, As-sam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Me-ghalaya, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Nicobar Islands), Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma, China (Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Guangdong, Hainan, Hong Kong), Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia (Peninsular and Bornean), Indonesia (Aru, Buru, Flores, Halmahera, Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Seram, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumbawa, Tanimber, Timor, Wetar), Philippines (Bohol, Busuanga, Leyte, Luzon, Masbate, Mindanao, Min-doro, Negros, Palawan, Panay), Papua New Guinea (including New Britain and New Ireland), Aus-tralia (Queensland, Northern Territory, Western Australia).


  4. Ichnocarpus polyanthus (Blume) P.I. Forst.

  5. Ichnocarpus polyanthus (Blume) P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 544; D.J. Middelton, Blumea 39 (1994) 82. — Tabernaemontana polyantha Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1029. — Micrechites polyantha (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 457; Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 671; Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 2 (1934) 126; Backer & Bakh. f„ Fl. Java. 2 (1965) 234; Tsiang & P.T. Li, Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 63 (1977) 194.— Micrechites radicans Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. 61 (1927) 205. — Micrechites elliptica Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 671. — Ichnocarpus pubiflorus Hook, f.,Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 670. — Micrechites pubiflora (Hook, f.) Kerr, Fl. Siam. Enum. 2 (1939) 462. — Micrechites bailloniiPierre, Rev. Cult. Col. 11 (1902) 229; Spire, Contr. Apocyn. (1905) 48; Pitard, Fl. Gdn. In-do-Chine 3 (1933) 1260.— Ichnocarpusbaillonii (Pierre)Ly in Fedde, Repert. 97 (1986) 675. —Micrechites elliptica var. scortechinii King & Gamble, J. As. Soc. Beng. 74 (1907) 505. — Mi-crechites scortechinii (King & Gamble) Ridley, J. Roy. As. Soc. Str. Br. 79 (1918) 95; Fl. Mai. Pen. 2 (1923) 368. — Micrechites ferruginea Pitard, Fl. G6n. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1260;Ly, Feddes Repert. 97 (1986) 673. — Micrechites lachnocarpaTsiang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Peiping, Bot. ser. 9 (1939) 22; Tsiang & P.T. Li, Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 63 (1977) 189; Lý, Feddes Repert. 97 (1986) 673. — Micrechites rehderianaTsiang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Peiping, Bot. ser. 9 (1939) 23; Tsiang& P.T. Li, Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 63 (1977) 194. — Ichnocarpus himalaicus T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 46, 2 (1971) 49; Chater, Enum. Flow. PI.Nepal 3 (1982) 83. — Micrechites malipoensis var. parvifo-lia Tsiang & P.T. Li, ActaPhytotax. Sin. 11 (1973) 383. India (Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim), Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, China (Yunnan, Hainan, Guangxi), Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia (Kedah), Indonesia (Java, Sumatra).

  6. Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius (Blume) P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 539, quoadcomb; D.J. Middelton, Blumea 39 (1994) 85. — Ficus serpyllifolia Blume, Bijdr. 1 (1825) 443. — Micrechites serpyllifolia (Blume) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 246. — Otopetalum micranthum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 400. — Micrechites micrantha (Miq.) Hallier, Jahrb. Hamb. Wiss. Anst. 17 (1900) 156; Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 234. — Ecdysanthera schrieckii Van Heurck & Mull.Arg. in Van Heurck, Obs. Bot. PI. Nov. (1871) 191. — Micrechites schrieckii (Van Heurck & Miill.Arg.) Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 214; Merr., Enum. Philipp. Flow. PI. 3 (1923) 332; Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 2 (1934) 126. — Micrechites polyantha auct. non Miq.: King & Gamble, J. As. Soc. Beng. 74 (1907) 504. TrachelospermumphilippinenseElmer, Leafl. Philipp.Bot. 2 (1908) 488. —Micrechites furcata Ridley, J. Roy. As. Soc. Str. Br. 79 (1918) 95; Fl. Mai. Pen. 2 (1923) 368. —Micrechites tenuifo-liaRidley, J. Roy. As. Soc. Str. Br. 79 (1918) 96; Fl. Mai. Pen. 2 (1923) 369. —Micrechites brachy-petala Ridley, J. Roy. As. Soc. Str. Br. 79 (1918) 96; Fl. Mai. Pen. 2 (1923) 368. Thailand (Peninsu-lar), Malaysia (Peninsular and Bornean), Singapore, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawe-si), Philippines (Basilan, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao); approx. 85 collections studied.


KIBATALIA G.Don

  1. Kibatalia arborea (Blume) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 86; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 211. - Hasseltia arborea Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1046. - Kickxia arborea (Blume) Blume, Rumphia 4 (1849) 26 (as Kixia). - Tabernaemontana ovalis Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 554. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan, Palawan, Sulawesi.

  2. Kibatalia maingayi (Hook.f.) Woodson, Philipp. J. Sci. 60 (1936) 213; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 223. - Vallaris maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 651. - Paravallaris maingayi (Hook.f.) Kerr in Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1939) 456. - Holarrhena daronensis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 4 (1912) 1455. - Vallaris daronensis (Elmer) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 10 (1915) 70. - Kibatalia daronensis (Elmer) Woodson, Philipp. J. Sci. 60 (1936) 218. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan, and Mindanao.


KOPSIA Blume

  1. Kopsia arborea Blume, Catalogus (1823) 13; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 235. - Kopsia longiflora Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 29 (1905) 47. - Kopsia scortechinii King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 431. - Kopsia laxinervia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 13 (1918) 55. - Kopsia lancibracteolata Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23 (1923) 262. - Kopsia jasminiflora Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1136. - Kopsia pitardii Merr., Contr. Arnold Arbor. 8 (1934) 141. - Kopsia cochinchinensis auct. non Kuntze: Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1134. - Kopsia pruniformis Rchb.f. & Zoll. ex Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 391. - Kopsia officinalis Tsiang & P.T. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11 (1973) 356. - Kopsia flavida auct. non Blume: Corner, Wayside Trees Malaya ed. 2, 1 (1952) 145. India and Sri Lanka east to Sulawesi and Lesser Sunda Islands.

  2. Kopsia grandifolia D.J. Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 9 (2004) 109; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 243. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia. RIAU ARCH. (Anambas, need further verification).

  3. Kopsia lapidilecta [Sleesen, Fl. Mal. Misc. Rec. 1 (1959) 13, no Latin description] Sleesen, Blumea 10 (1960) 137; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 247. Endemic to Sumatra. RIAU ARCH. (Natuna Islands).

  4. Kopsia pauciflora Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 639; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 250. - Kopsia spec. Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 59 (1911) 130. - Kopsia parvifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 29 (1926) 412. - Kopsia caudata Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 254. - Kopsia caudata Merr. var. glabra Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 255. - Kopsia alba Ridl. ex M.R. Hend., Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 5 (1930) 78. - Kopsia lancifolia Markgr., Blumea 20 (1973) 425. - Kopsia macrophylla auct. non Hook.f.: Beaman et al., Pl. Mt. Kinabalu 4 (2001) 108.

    • var. pauciflora. Southern Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan, possibly also in Java.

  5. Kopsia sumatrana D.J. Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 9 (2004) 131; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 256. Endemic to Sumatra.



LEUCONOTIS Jack

  1. Leuconotis anceps Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 14 (1823) 121; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 265. - Willughbeia borneensis Merr., J. Malayan Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 1 (1923) 28. - Leuconotis floribunda Leeuwenb., Syst. Geogr. Pl. 72 (2002) 122. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.

  2. Leuconotis eugeniifolia (Wall. ex G. Don) A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 331; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 267. - Melodinus eugeniifolius Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 101. - Leuconotis cuspidata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1849) 112. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan.

  3. Leuconotis griffithii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 628; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 268. - Leuconotis maingayi Dyer ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 628. - Leuconotis elastica Becc., For. Borneo (1902) 562. - Leuconotis subavenis Boerl. var. elastica (Becc.) Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 156. - Leuconotis griffithii Hook.f. var. sumatrana Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 156. - Leuconotis anceps auct. non Jack: Leeuwenb., Syst. Geogr. Pl. 72 (2002) 113, p.p. Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan.


MARSDENIA R.Br.

  1. Marsdenia lactifera (L.) I.M.Turner, Asian J. Trop. Biol. 1: 25 (1995).


MELODINUS J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

  1. Melodinus orientalis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1026; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 279. - Alyxia coriacea Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 541, non Melodinus coriaceus Oliv. - Hunteria coriacea Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 105. - Gynopogon coriaceus (Wall.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 151. - Hunteria cuspidata Wall. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 350. - Alyxia cuspidata Wall. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 351, nom. illeg. - Chilocarpus cuspidatus Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2 (1876) 698, nom. illeg. - Willughbeia umbrosa Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 154; Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 390. - Ancylocladus umbrosus (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 412. - Melodinus fasciculatus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 155. - Melodinus laevigatus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 155. - Melodinus laxiflorus Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 155. - Melodinus micranthus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 629. - Melodinus coriaceus Oliv., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 18 (1888) 1758. - Alyxia macrocarpa Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1898) 622. - Melodinus citriformis King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 413. - Melodinus perakensis King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 413. - Willughbeia luzoniensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 4 (1909) 320. - Melodinus luzoniensis (Merr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 24 (1948) 129. - Chilocarpus globosus Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 4 (1912) 1454. - Melodinus globosus (Elmer) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 24 (1948) 129. - Willughbeia pauciflora Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 3 (1913) 387. - Willughbeia ellipticifolia Quisumb. & Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 37 (1928) 194. - Melodinus ellipticifolius (Quisumb. & Merr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 24 (1948) 128. - Melodinus lancifolius Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1934 (1934) 123. - Melodinus kopsiifolius Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 153. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Kalimantan, Philippines, Sulawesi, Bali.


MICRECHITES Miq.

  1. Micrechites polyanthus (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 457; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 285. - Tabernaemontana polyantha Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1029. - Ichnocarpus polyanthus (Blume) P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 544. - Ichnocarpus pubiflorus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 670. - Micrechites pubiflorus (Hook.f.) Kerr in Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1939) 462. - Micrechites ellipticus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 671. - Micrechites baillonii Pierre, Rev. Cultures Colon. 11 (1902) 229. - Ichnocarpus baillonii (Pierre) Lý, Feddes Repert. 97 (1986) 675. - Micrechites ellipticus Hook.f. var. scortechinii King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 505. - Micrechites scortechinii (King & Gamble) Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79 (1918) 95. - Micrechites radicans Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 205. - Ichnocarpus radicans Wall., Numer. List. 1676 (1829), nom. nud. - Micrechites ferrugineus Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1260. - Micrechites lachnocarpus Tsiang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 9 (1939) 22. - Micrechites rehderianus Tsiang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 9 (1939) 23. - Ichnocarpus himalaicus T. Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 46, 2 (1971) 49. - Micrechites malipoensis Tsiang & P.T. Li var. parvifolius Tsiang & P.T. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 11 (1973) 383. India east to Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan.

  2. Micrechites serpyllifolius (Blume) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 246; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 287. - Ficus serpyllifolia Blume, Bijdr. 1 (1825) 443. - Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius (Blume) P.I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 539. - Otopetalum micranthum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 400. - Micrechites micranthus (Miq.) Hallier f., Jahrb. Hamburg Wiss. Anst. 17, Beih. 3 (1900) 156. - Ecdysanthera schrieckii Van Heurck & Müll.Arg. in Van Heurck, Observ. Bot. (1871) 191. - Micrechites schrieckii (Van Heurck & Müll.Arg.) Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 214. - Trachelospermum philippinense Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 2 (1908) 488. - Micrechites furcatus Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79 (1918) 95. - Micrechites brachypetalus Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79 (1918) 96. - Micrechites tenuifolius Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79 (1918) 96. - Micrechites polyanthus auct. non Miq.: King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 504. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Kalimantan, Philippines, Sulawesi.


OCHROSIA Juss.

  1. Ochrosia acuminata Trimen ex Valeton (1895) 231, pl. xxii; Pichon (1947) 209; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 108 (2004). — Neisosperma acuminata (Trimen ex Valeton) Fosberg & Sachet (1977) 28. — Neisosperma acuminata (Trimen ex Valeton) Fosberg & Sachet var. acuminata; Markgr. (1979) 244. — Lactaria acuminata (Trimen ex Valeton) Koidz. (1923) 51. Malesia: Indonesia (Sulawesi).

  2. Ochrosia ackeringae (Teijsm. & Binn.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 138; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 292. - Lactaria ackeringae Teijsm. & Binn., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 29 (1867) 249. - Bleekeria ackeringae (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koidz., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 37 (1923) 52. - Ochrosia ackeringae (Teijsm. & Binn.) Miq. var. angustifolia Baker f., Monogr. Christmas Isl. (1900) 182. - Ochrosia littoralis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 4 (1909) 315. - Bleekeria littoralis (Merr.) Koidz., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 37 (1923) 52. - Excavatia litoralis (Merr.) Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 194. - Lactaria calocarpa auct. non Hassk.: Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 415 (as kalocarpa). - Sumatra east to New Guinea, Australia, and Solomon Islands.

  3. Ochrosia apoensis Elmer (1912) 1461; Merr. (1923) 329; Pichon (1947) 211; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 109 (2004). — Neisosperma apoensis (Elmer) Fosberg & Sachet (1977) 28. — Neisosperma acuminata (Trimen ex Valeton) Fosberg & Sachet var. apoense (Elmer) Markgr. (1979) 244.

  4. Ochrosia basistamina Hendrian, BLUMEA 49: 121 (2004). Malesia: Indonesia (Sulawesi).

  5. Ochrosia citrodora Lauterb. & K. Schum. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. (1901) 504; Markgr. (1927) 190; Pichon (1947) 211 (as ‘O. citriodora’); HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 110 (2004). — Neisosperma citrodora (Lauterb. & K. Schum.) Fosberg & Sachet (1977) 29; Markgr. (1979) 245. — Paralstonia clusiacea auct. non Baill.: Markgr. (1926) 283. Malesia: Indonesia (West Papua), Papua New Guinea.

  6. Ochrosia coccinea (Teijsm. & Binn.) Miq. (1869) 138; F. Muell. (1871) 131; Valeton (1895) 230; Pichon (1947) 208; Fosberg, Boiteau & Sachet (1977) 25; Markgr. (1979) 239; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 119 (2004). — Lactaria coccinea Teijsm. & Binn. (1867) 249. — Bleekeria coccinea (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koidz. (1923) 52. — Excavatia coccinea (Teijsm. & Binn.) Markgr. (1927) 195. In Malesia: Indonesia (Moluccas and West Papua), and Papua New Guinea (East Sepik, Morobe).

  7. Ochrosia ficifolia (S. Moore) Markgr. (1927) 190; Pichon (1947) 211; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 111 (2004). — Alstonia ficifolia S. Moore (1923) 32. — Neisosperma ficifolia (S. Moore) Fosberg & Sachet in Fosberg, Boiteau & Sachet (1977) 29; Markgr. (1979) 244. — Ochrosia rudis Markgr. (1927) 189; Pichon (1947) 211. — Neisosperma rudis (Markgr.) Fosberg & Sachet in Fosberg, Boiteau & Sachet (1977) 31. Malesia: Indonesia (West Papua), Papua New Guinea.

  8. Ochrosia glomerata (Blume) F. Muell. (1871) 130; Valeton (1895) 233; Markgr. (1927) 191; Merr. & L.M. Perry (1943) 213; Pichon (1947) 209; H. St. John (1973) 280; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 113 (2004). — Pseudochrosia glomerata Blume (1850) 158; K. Schum. (1888) 214; (1895) 156. — Neisosperma glomerata (Blume) Fosberg & Sachet in Fosberg, Boiteau & Sachet (1977) 29; Markgr. (1979) 246. — Lactaria glomerata (Blume) Koidz. (1923) 51. In Malesia: Malaysia (Borneo: Sabah), Philippines (Luzon, Palawan, Mindanao, Sibuyan, Mindoro, Negros) and Indonesia (North Sulawesi, Moluccas, West Papua). Also found in Solomon Islands.

  9. Ochrosia minima (Markgr.) Fosberg & Boiteau in Fosberg, Boiteau & Sachet (1977) 27; Markgr. (1979) 240; P.I. Forst. (1993) 15; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 119 (2004). — Excavatia minima Markgr. in Merr. & L.M. Perry (1940) 199. — Bleekeria minima (Markgr.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (1943) 214. Malesia: Papua New Guinea. Also found in Australia (Queensland).

  10. Ochrosia oppositifolia (Lam.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 156; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 299; K. Schum. & Lauterb. (1901) 504; Merr. (1923) 330; Pichon (1947) 211; Guillaumin (1948) 293; Boiteau, L. Allorge & Sevenet (1972) 629; H. St. John (1973) 280; Leeuwenb. (1987) 51; D.J. Middleton (1999) 65; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 11 (2004). - Cerbera oppositifolia Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 62. - Neisosperma oppositifolia (Lam.) Fosberg & Sachet, Micronesica 8 (1972) 48 (as Neiosperma). - Lactaria oppositifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 415. - Calpicarpum oppositifolium (Lam.) Boiteau in Boiteau et al., Adansonia sér. 2, 14 (1974) 495. - Cerbera salutaris Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1 (1790) 136. - Lactaria salubris Rumph. ex Raf., Sylva Telur. (1838) 162. - Ochrosia salubris (Raf.) Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 158. - Bleekeria salubris (Raf.) Hassk., Retzia (1855) 41, superfl. name. - Calpicarpum lamarkii G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1838) 100, nom. illeg. - Kopsia lamarkii B.D. Jacks., Index Kew. 2 (1895) 12, misapplied name. - Cerbera platyspermos Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. (1791) 193. - Ochrosia platyspermos (Gaertn.) A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 356. - Ochrosion platyspermum (Gaertn.) St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7 (1880) 131, nom. nud. - Neisosperma muricata Raf., Sylva Telur. (1838) 162, nom.illeg. - Ochrosia cowleyi F.M. Bailey, Queensland Agric. J. 1 (1897) 299. - Paralstonia platyphylla Merr. ex E.E. Schneid., Bull. Bur. Forest. Philipp. Islands 14 (1916) 204, nom. nud. - Ochrosia elliptica auct. non Labill.: K. Schum. & Hollrung, Fl. Kais. Wilh. Land (1889) 112. - Ochrosia borbonica auct. non J.F. Gmel.: Trimen, Fl. Ceylon (1895) 129, pl. lx. - Ochrosia parviflora auct. non (G. Forst.) Hensl.: Markgr.: Nova Guinea 14, 2 (1926) 283. Sri Lanka, Andaman Islands, Thailand. In Malesia: Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo: Sabah, Sarawak), Philippines (Mindanao, Polilo, Luzon, Mindoro, Babuyanes), Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, South Sulawesi, Moluccas, West Papua), and Papua New Guinea. Widespread throughout Pacific Islands: Samoa, Marshal Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu, Mariana Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Caroline Islands, New Caledonia, Seychelles Islands, Tahiti, and Austral Islands.

  11. Ochrosia sciadophylla Markgr. (1967) 26; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 115 (2004). — Neisosperma sciadophylla (Markgr.) Fosberg & Sachet in Fosberg, Boiteau & Sachet (1977) 31; Markgr. (1979) 246. Malesia: Papua New Guinea. Mostly found in the Solomon Islands.

  12. Ochrosia syncarpa Markgr. (1979) 237; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 120 (2004). Malesia: Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara).

  13. Ochrosia tenimberensis Markgr. (1979) 239; HENDRIAN, BLUMEA 49: 121 (2004). Malesia: Indonesia (Moluccas).


PARAMERIA Benth.

  1. Parameria densiflora Oliv., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 16 (1886) t. l520; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 305. Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia.

  2. Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke, Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6 (1940) 176; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 305. - Aegiphila laevigata Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 7 (1806) 76. - Echites densiflorus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1040. - Chonemorpha densiflora (Blume) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 76. - Ecdysanthera densiflora (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 452. - Parsonsia barbata Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1042. - Ecdysanthera barbata (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 451. - Parameria barbata (Blume) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 162. - Echites glanduliferus Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 75. - Ecdysanthera glandulifera (Wall. ex G. Don) A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 443. - Parameria glandulifera (Wall. ex G. Don) Benth. ex Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46 (1877) 255. - Ecdysanthera griffithii Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1848) t. 1307. - Echites torosus Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Philipp. (1851) 59, non Jacq. (1760). - Ecdysanthera barbata (Blume) Miq. var. angustior Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 452. - Parameria angustior (Miq.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1899) 399. - Parameria philippinensis Radlk., Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 14 (1884) 518. - Parameria glandulifera (Wall. ex G. Don) Benth. ex Kurz var. philippinensis (Radlk.) Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4 (1894) 207. - Parameria vulneraria Radlk., Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 14 (1884) 519. - Parameria pierrei Baill., Hist. Pl. 10 (1888) 167, nom. nud. - Ecdysanthera glandulifera (Wall. ex G. Don) A.DC. var. pierrei F. Heim in Spire, Contr. Apocyn. (1905) 40, nom. illeg. (in synonymy of Parameria glandulifera). - Parameria glandulifera (Wall. ex G. Don) Benth. ex Kurz var. pierrei Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1201. - Parameria barbata (Blume) K. Schum. var. pierrei (Pit.) Kerr in Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1939) 464. - Parameria glandulifera (Wall. ex G. Don) Benth. ex Kurz var. poilanei Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1203. India east to Sulawesi and Lesser Sunda Islands.

  3. Parameria polyneura Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 660; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 308. - Parameriopsis polyneura (Hook.f.) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 20 (1948) 300. - Parameria griffithii Pierre, Rev. Cultures Colon. 11 (1902) 229, nom. illeg. Southern Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan.


PARSONSIA R.Br.

  1. Parsonsia alboflavescens (Dennst.) Mabb., Taxon 26 (1977) 532; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 313. - Periploca alboflavescens Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab. (1818) 12, 23, 35. - Echites laevigatus Moon, Cat. Pl. Ceylon (1824) 20. - Parsonsia laevigata (Moon) Alston, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Peradeniya) 11 (1929) 203. - Cudicia gyrandra Buch.-Ham. ex Dillwyn, Index Hort. Malab. (1839) 41. - Apocynum vincifolium Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 71. - Helygia javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1043. - Heligme javanica Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 429. - sphalm. - Parsonsia javanica (Blume) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 184. - Parsonsia acuminata Wall., Numer. List 1634 (1829), nom. nud. - Parsonsia pauciflora Wall., Numer. List 1635 (1829), nom. nud. - Echites spiralis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 110. - Parsonsia confusa Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 1, Suppl. (1906) 118. - Parsonsia oblonga Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 80. - Parsonsia spiralis Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 80. - Heligme spiralis (Wall. ex G.Don) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1860) 193. - Parsonsia helicandra Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1837) 197. - Cudicia trichotoma Buch.-Ham. ex Dillwyn, Index Hort. Malab. (1839) 41. - Heligme rheedei Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1848) t. 1303, nom. illeg. - Parsonsia rheedei Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 130, nom. illeg. - Chaetosus volubilis Benth., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 226. - Parsonsia cumingiana A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 402. - Aganosma concanensis Hook., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 5 (1851) t. 841. - Heligme korthalsiana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 429. - Parsonsia korthalsiana (Miq.) Boerl., Hand. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2, 2 (1899) 397. - Heligme minahassae Teijsm. & Binn., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 25 (1863) 404. - Parsonsia minahassae (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1898) 531. - Heligme rheedei Wight var. macrocarpa Teijsm. & Binn., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (1866) 127, nom. nud. - Lyonsia viridiflora F.M. Bailey, Queensland Agric. J. 3 (1898) 156. - Parsonsia kunstleri King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 457. - Parsonsia oblancifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 7 (1912) 335. - Parsonsia magnifolia Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8 (1919) 3071. - Lyonsia sumatrana Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1925 (1925) 84. - Parsonsia oblongifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 27 (1925) 50. - Parsonsia longipedunculata Merr., Pl. Elmer. Born. (1929) 255. - Parsonsia aterinervia [Elmer ex Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3 (1923) 338, in obs.] Elmer ex Merr., Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 10 (1939) 3695. - Parsonsia panniculata Pichon, Notul. Syst. (Paris), ed. Humbert 14 (1950) 16. India to S China and Taiwan, throughout Malesia to Australia and Solomon Islands.


POTTSIA Hook. & Arn.

  1. Pottsia laxiflora (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 416; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 345. - Vallaris laxiflora Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1043. - Teysmannia laxiflora (Blume) Miq.,Verslagen Meded. Afd. Natuurk. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. 6 (1857) 194. - Pottsia cantonensis Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1837) 199. - Pottsia hookeriana Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1848) t. 1306bis. - Teysmannia hookeriana (Wight) Miq., Verslagen Meded. Afd. Natuurk. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. 6 (1857) 194. - Euthodon paniculata Griff., Notul. Pl. Asiat. 4 (1854) 84. - Pottsia inodora Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1178. - Parsonsia ovata Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 80. - Pottsia ovata (Wall. ex G. Don) A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 442. India east to Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Bali.


RAUVOLFIA L.

  1. Rauvolfia amsoniifolia A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 338; Hemsl., Bot. Chall. Exp. 3 (1885) 163;Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 404; Boerl., Handl. 2 (1899) 393; Merr., For. Bur. Bull. 1 (1903) 49; Enum. Philipp. Flow. PI. 3 (1923) 329; K. Heyne, Nutt. PI. Ned. Ind.,ed. 2 (1927) 1285;Quisumb., Med. PI. Philipp. (1951)736; Markgr., Blumea30 (1984); Hendrian & David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 451. — Cyrtosiphonia amsoniifolia (A. DC.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856) 402. Malesia; Indonesia (S Sulawesi, E Nusa Tenggara and Maluku), Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro, Marinduque, Masbate and Mindanao).

  2. Rauvolfia javanicaKoord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Kennis Boomsoorten Java 1 (1894) 91; Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 11 (1894) 81; Exk. Fl. Java 3(1912)74; Fl. Tjibodas 3, 3 (1918) 57; Boerl., Handl. 2 (1899) 393;Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 174; Rendle, J. Bot. 63 (1925) suppl. 67; K. Heyne, Nutt. PI. Ned. Ind., ed. 2 (1927) 1285; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 231; Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 164; Hendrian & David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 453. Malesia: Indonesia (S Sumatra, Java, and Nusa Tenggara).

  3. Rauvolfia kamarora Hendrian, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 454. Malesia: Indonesia (C Sulawesi).

  4. Rauvolfia moluccana Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 163; Hendrian & David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 456. Malesia: Indonesia (Maluku and Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea.

  5. Rauvolfia oligantha Hendrian, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 457. Malesia: Indonesia (C Java).

  6. Rauvolfia rostrata Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. 61 (1928) 188; Kaneh. & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 504; Markgr.. Blumea 30 (1984) 163; Hendrian & David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 459. - Rauvolfia amsoniifolia auct. non. DC.: Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. 61 (1928) 188. Malesia: Indonesia (Maluku and Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea.

  7. Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz, For. Fl. Br. Burma 2 (1877) 171; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 632; Boerl., Handl. 2 (1899) 393; Koord., Exk. Fl. Java 3 (1912) 74; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. (1912) 175; Merr., Int. Rumph. (1917) 430; Enum. Born. (1921) 499; K. Heyne, Nutt. PI. Ned. Ind., ed. 2 (1927) 1286; Kerr, Fl. Siam. Enum. 2 (1939) 430; Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 386; Monach.,Econ. Bot. 8 (1954) 349; Backer& Bakh. f„ Fl. Java 2 (1965)231; Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 161; Hendrian & David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 460. — Ophioxylon serpentinum L.,Sp.Pl. (1753) 1043. — Ophioxylon trifoliatum Gaertn., Fruct. 2 (1791) 129, t. 109. — Rauvolfia trifoliata(Gaertn.) Baill., Hist. PI. 10 (1891) 171, in adnot. — Ophioxylon obversum Miq., FI. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856) 405. — Rauvolfia obversa (Miq.) Baill., Hist. PL 10 (1891) 171, in adnot. — Rauvolfia obversa (Miq.) Koord., Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 60 (1900) 243, superfl. comb. — Rauvolfia serpentina var. obversa (Miq.) Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 386. India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam. In Malesia: Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Indonesia(Java and Nusa Tenggara).

  8. Rauvolfia sumatrana Jack, Mai. Misc. 1, 5 (1820) 22; G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1838) 99; A.DC., Prod. 8 (1844) 337; Hassk., Flora 28 (1845) 263 (= 295);Forbes, Wand. (1885) 510; Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Kennis Boomsoorten Java 1 (1894) 93; Boerl., Handl. 2 (1899) 393; King & Gamble, J. As. Soc. Beng. 74,2 (1907) 424;Koord., Exk. Fl. Java 3 (1912) 75; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 176;Ridl.,FL Mai. Pen. 2 (1923) 336; K. Heyne, Nutt. PI. Ned. Ind., ed. 2 (1927) 1287; Hend., J. Mai. Br. Roy. As. Soc. 17 (1939) 57; Kerr, Fl. Siam. Enum. 2 (1939) 431; Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 167; Hendrian & David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 462. — Cyrtosiphonia sumatrana (Jack) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856) 401;Fl. Ind. Bat.,Suppl. 1 (1861) 228. — Rauvolfia sumatrana var. longifolia Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1034; Koord. & Valeton,Bijdr. Kennis Boomsoorten Java 1 (1894) 94. — Rauvolfia reflexa Teijsm. & Binn., Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. 3 (1852) 329; Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Kennis Boomsoorten Java 1 (1894) 89; Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 11 (1894) 81; Boerl., Handl. 2 (1899) 393; Koord.-Schum.,Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 175; K. Heyne, Nutt. PI. Ned. Ind., ed. 2 (1927) 1286; Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 386; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 251; Whitmore, Mai. For. Rec. 26 (1971)26; Tree Fl. Mai. 2 (1973)21; Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 164. — Cyrtosiphonia reflexa (Teijsm. & Binn.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856) 402, syn. nov.— Cyrtosiphonia spectabilis Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856) 402; Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. 1 (1861) 228. — Rauvolfia spectabilis (Miq.) Boerl.,Handl. 2 (1899) 393; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 231. — Cyrtosiphonia madurensis Teijsm. & Binn., Cat. Hort. Bog. (1866) 125. — Rauvolfia madurensis (Teijsm. & Binn.) Boerl., Handl. 2 (1899) 393. — Rauvolfia madurensis (Teijsm. & Binn.) Burck ex Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 174, superfl. comb. — Rauvolfia samarensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 4 (1900) 316, syn. nov.; Enum. Philipp. Flow. PI. 3 (1923) 329;PI.Elm. Born. (1929)254; Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. 61 (1928) 189;Blumea 30 (1984) 165. — Rauvolfia palawanensis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 4 (1912) 1462. Burma, Thailand. In Malesia: Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo), Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Nusa Tenggara, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Maluku), Philippines (Luzon, Samar, Leyte, Panay, Mindanaoand Palawan).

  9. Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.)Baill., Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1 (1888) 768; Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 2 (1934) 109; Merr., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n.s. 24 (1935) 312; Monach., Econ. Bot. 8 (1954) 358; Whitmore,Tree Fl. Mai. 2 (1973) 21; Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 160; Hendrian & David J. Middleton, BLUMEA 44 (1999) 464. — Dissolena vertcillata Lour.,Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 137. — Cerbera chinensis Spreng.,Syst. 1 (1825)642, nom. illeg. — Ophioxylon maius Hassk., Flora 28 (1845) 263 bis (= 265). — Rauvolfia maior (Hassk.) G. Nicholson, Diet. Gard. 3 (1886) 279. — Hunteria sundana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856) 409. — Hunteria sundana var. minor Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1856) 409. — Ophioxylon chinensis Hance, J. Bot. 3 (1865) 380.—Rauvolfia chinensis (Hance) Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26 (1889) 95. — Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. exKurz var. gracilis Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. II, Bot. 4 (1894) 207. — Rauvolfia perakensis King & Gamble, Mat. Fl. Mai. Pen. 19 (1907) 424; Ridl., Fl. Mai. Pen. 2 (1923) 335.— Rauvolfia membranacea Merr.,Philipp. J. Sci. 14 (1919)449.— Rauvolfia loheri Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 27 (1925) 50. — Tabernaemontana cylindraca Steud., Nom. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 658, nom.nud., based on Wallich 4451 (K-W). Rauvolfia serpentina auct. nonBenth. ex Kurz: Ridl., Trans. Linn. Soc. II, Bot. 3 (1893) 319. India, Sri Lanka, Laos, Burma, Thailand, China (type), Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia,Vietnam. In Malesia: Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo); Indonesia(Sumatra, Java, Bali, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and NusaTenggara); Philippines (Luzon).


SECAMONE R.Br

  1. Secamone axillaris Klack. BLUMEA 51: 589 (2006). Indonesia, Sulawesi, Kendari.

  2. Secamone celebica Klack. BLUMEA 51: 591 (2006). Salajar Island in the southern part of the Sulawesi group.

  3. Secamone variicolor Klack. BLUMEA 51: 593 (2006). Sulawesi.

  4. Secamone kjellbergii Klack. BLUMEA 51: 595 (2006). Sulawesi.


STROPHANTHUS DC.

  1. Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46 (1877) 257; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 362. - Echites caudatus L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 52. - Strophanthus dichotomus DC., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 3 (1802) 123. - Nerium scandens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 143. - Strophanthus scandens (Lour.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 412. - Strophanthus dichotomus DC. var. loureri A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 417. - Strophanthus terminalis Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (1823) 56. - Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz forma undulata Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. sér. 3, 5 (1893) 265. - Strophanthus cumingii A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 418. - Strophanthus longicaudatus Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1848) t. 1299. - Strophanthus griffithii Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1848) t. 1300. - Strophanthus horsfieldianus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 442. - Strophanthus dichotomus DC. var. luzoniensis D. Vidal, Sin. Gen. Pl. Leños Filip. (1883) 1181, t. 67. - Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz var. javanensis Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. sér. 3, 5 (1893) 264. - Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz var. billardieri Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. sér. 3, 5 (1893) 265. - Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz var. macrophyllus Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. sér. 3, 5 (1893) 265. - Strophanthus macrophyllus (Franch.) Pierre, Bull. Soc. Bot. France (1905) 491. - Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz var. lanceolatus Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3, 5 (1893) 266. Strophanthus pierrei Heim, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 2 (1894) 1151. - Strophanthus giganteus Pierre, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 52 (1905) 491. - Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz var. giganteus (Pierre) Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1200. - Strophanthus erectus Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 3 (1908) 261. - Strophanthus letei Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 29 (1926) 484. Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea.


TABERNAEMONTANA L.

  1. Tabernaemontana corymbosa Roxb. ex Wall., Bot. Reg. 15 (1829) sub t. 1273; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 376. - Ervatamia corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 448, Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. (1923) 341. - Pagiantha corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 546. - Pseudixora sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 209. - Randia sumatrana (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4 (1869) 235. - Tabernaemontana sumatrana (Miq.) Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49 (1913) 375. - Tabernaemontana cymulosa Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 422. - Tabernaemontana hirta Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 646. - Ervatamia hirta (Hook.f.) King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 449. - Ervatamia corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) King & Gamble var. pubescens King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 449. - Ervatamia pauciflora Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 86 (1922) 299, non Blume (1826). - Ervatamia pauciflora Ridl. var. minor Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 86 (1922) 300. - Ervatamia jasminiflora Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2 (1923) 342. - Tabernaemontana sumatrana Merr., Contr. Arnold Arbor. 8 (1934) 139, non (Miq.) Hallier f. - Tabernaemontana inaequifolia Lütjeh. & Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1938) 103. - Ervatamia inaequifolia (Lütjeh. & Ooststr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’]) 220. - Tabernaemontana carinata Lütjeh. & Ooststr., Blumea 3 (1938) 104. Tabernaemontana pubituba Merr., Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 24 (1939) 87. Southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, W Malesia, Lesser Sunda Islands.

  2. Tabernaemontana macrocarpa Jack, Malayan Misc. 2, 7 (1822) 80; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 378. - Pagiantha macrocarpa (Jack) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 546. - Ervatamia macrocarpa (Jack) Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 33 (1952) 246. - Orchipeda sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 553. - Voacanga plumeriifolia Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 1 (1908) 333. - Tabernaemontana plumeriifolia (Elmer) Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3 (1923) 326. - Ervatamia plumeriifolia (Elmer) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’]) 220. - Pagiantha plumeriifolia (Elmer) Markgr., Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 1 (1950) 29. - Tabernaemontana megacarpa Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 6 (1909) 318. - Pagiantha megacarpa (Merr.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 546. - Tabernaemontana sphaerocarpa auct. non Blume: Kessler & Sidiy., Trees Balikpapan-Samarinda (1994) 54. S Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan, Philippines.

  3. Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1028; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 383. - Ervatamia blumeana Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 547. - Tabernaemontana calycina Wall., Bot. Reg. 15 (1829) sub t. 1273. - Ervatamia calycina (Wall.) Lace, List Trees Burma (1913) 91. - Tabernaemontana rhynchophylla Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 422. - Tabernaemontana malaccensis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 649. - Ervatamia malaccensis (Hook.f.) King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 452. - Tabernaemontana polysperma Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21 (1922) 531. - Ervatamia polysperma (Merr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’]) 220. - Ervatamia blumeana Markgr. var. macropetala Bakh.f., Blumea 6 (1950) 385. Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Kalimantan.

  4. Tabernaemontana rostrata Wall., Bot. Reg 15 (1829) sub t. 1273; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 388. - Ervatamia rostrata (Wall.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. BerlinDahlem 12 (1935) 547. - Ervatamia corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) King & Gamble var. kelsallii King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 449. - Ervatamia cylindrocarpa King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 452. - Tabernaemontana cylindrocarpa (King & Gamble) Merr., Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 20 (1935) 107. - Ervatamia curtisii King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 453. - Tabernaemontana crispa auct. non Roxb.: Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 648. - Andaman and Nicobar, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan, Philippines.


TRACHELOSPERMUM Lem.

  1. Trachelospermum inflatum (Blume) Pierre ex Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 20 (1948) 191; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 393. - Echites inflatus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1039; A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 478. - Chonemorpha inflata (Blume) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 76. - Anodendron inflatum (Blume) Hassk., Flora 28, 19 (1845) 301 (but incorrectly as 269). - Dendrocharis myrtifolia Miq., Verslagen Meded. Afd. Natuurk. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. 6 (1857) 195. Sumatra, Java.


URCEOLA Roxb.

  1. Urceola brachysepala Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 659; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 396. - Chavannesia brachysepala (Hook.f.) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 20 (1948) 302. - Urceola maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 658. - Urceola acuteacuminata Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 19. - Carruthersia imberbis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 2 (1909) 588. - Urceola imberbis (Elmer) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 10 (1915) 68. - Chavannesia imberbis (Elmer) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 20 (1948) 302. - Urceola philippinensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 10 (1915) 69. - Chavannesia philippinensis (Elmer) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 20 (1948) 302. - Urceola javanica auct. non (Blume) Boerl.: Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 180, p.p. - Urceola lucida auct. non (Wall. ex G. Don) Benth. ex Kurz: Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 235. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Kalimantan, Philippines.

  2. Urceola elastica Roxb., Asiat. Res. 5 (1798) 169; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 398. - Tabernaemontana elastica (Roxb.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 639. - Urceola brachysepala Hook.f. var. pilosa Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 18. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan.

  3. Urceola javanica (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1899) 399; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 399. - Parsonsia javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1041. - Chavannesia javanica (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 458. - Hymenolophus romburghii Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 14. - Urceola pilosa Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 19. - Xylinabaria koordersii Pierre ex Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1, Fam. 247 (1912) l79. - Xylinabaria bantamensis Pierre ex Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., sér. B, Bot. 1 (1950) 83. - Urceola brachysepala auct. non (Blume) Boerl.: Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 235, p.p. Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku Archipelago, New Guinea. W SUMATRA.

  4. Urceola lucida (Wall. ex G. Don) Benth. ex Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46 (1877) 255; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 401. - Echites lucidus Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 75. - Chavannesia lucida (Wall. ex G. Don) A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 444. - Echites esculentus Wall., Numer. List 1671 (1829), nom. nud. - Chavannesia esculenta A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 444. - Urceola esculenta (A.DC.) Benth. ex Kurz, Forest Fl. Burma 2 (1877) 184. - Xylinabaria esculenta (A.DC.) Pierre ex Spire, Contr. Apocyn. (1905) 66. - Urceola reticulata King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74, 2 (1907) 477. Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore.

  5. Urceola rosea (Hook. & Arn.) D.J. Middleton, Novon 4 (1994) 151; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 406. - Ecdysanthera rosea Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1837) 198. - Ecdysanthera pedunculosa Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 557. - Parameria pedunculosa (Miq.) Benth. ex Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1899) 399. - Antirrhoea esquirolii H. Lév., Fl. Kouy-Tcheou (1914) 364. NE India to Taiwan, possibly Japan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java.

  6. Urceola torulosa Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 659; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 408. - Chavannesia torulosa (Hook.f.) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 20 (1948) 302. - Urceola malaccensis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 658. - Urceola longisepala Merr., Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 19 (1934) 188. - Echites moniliferus Wall., Numer. List 1660 (1829), nom. nud. - Urceola aff. torulosa Coode et al., Checklist Pl. Brunei (1996) 29. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan.


VALLARIOPSIS Woodson

  1. Vallariopsis lancifolia (Hook.f.) Woodson, Philipp. J. Sci. 60 (1936) 228; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 409. - Vallaris lancifolia Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 651. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan.


VALLARIS Burm.f.

  1. Vallaris glabra (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 417; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 410. - Pergularia glabra L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1767) 53. - Vallaris pergulana Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 51. - Vallaris indica J.F. Gmel., Syst. Nat. 2 (1791) 391. - Vallaris ovalis Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 427. Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores).


VINCETOXICUM Wolf

  1. Vincetoxicum flexuosum (R.Br.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 424 (1891).

  2. Vincetoxicum flexuosum var. tenuis (Blume) Schneidt, Meve & Liede, Phytotaxa 369: 144 (2018).

  3. Vincetoxicum globiferum (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 424 (1891).

  4. Vincetoxicum indicum (Burm.f.) Mabb., Mabberley's Pl.-Book, ed. 4: 1102 (2017).

    • var. indicum.


VOACANGA Thouars

  1. Voacanga foetida (Blume) Rolfe, J. Bot. London 21 (1883) 202; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 413. - Orchipeda foetida Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1027. Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Philippines.


WILLUGHBEIA Roxb.

  1. Willughbeia angustifolia (Miq.) Markgr., Blumea 20 (1973) 414; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 423. - Vahea angustifolia Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 394. - Willughbeia apiculata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 227, 551. - Willughbeia rufescens Dyer ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 326. - Ancylocladus rufescens (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 412. - Urnularia rufescens (Hook.f.) Stapf ex S. Moore, J. Bot. 63, Suppl. (1925) 67. - Willughbeia flavescens Dyer ex Hook.f. var. rufescens Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2 (1923) 325. - Willughbeiopsis rufescens (Hook.f.) Rauschert, Taxon 31 (1982) 556. - Chilocarpus brachyanthus Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 101. - Willughbeia elmeri Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 253. - Willughbeia angustifolia (Miq.) Markgr. var. gracilior Markgr., Blumea 20 (1973) 414. - Melodinus baueri auct. non Endl.: Leeuwenb., Syst. Geogr. Pl. 73 (2003) 19, p.p. - Melodinus orientalis auct. non Blume: Leeuwenb., Syst. Geogr. Pl. 73 (2003) 42, p.p. Nicobar Islands, southern Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan, Buru.

  2. Willughbeia beccariana (Kuntze ex Pierre) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 2 (1900) 55; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 424. - Ancylocladus beccarianus Kuntze [Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 412, nom. nud.] ex Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 98. - Urnularia beccariana (Kuntze ex Pierre) Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 28 (1901) t. 2711 (1). - Willughbeiopsis beccariana (Kuntze ex Pierre) Rauschert, Taxon 31 (1982) 556. Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi.

  3. Willughbeia coriacea Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3 (1832) 45; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 425. - Ancylocladus coriaceus (Wall.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 412. - Willughbeia firma Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 154. - Ancylocladus firmus (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 412. - Willughbeia firma Blume var. oblongifolia Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 154. - Willughbeia burbidgei Dyer, Kew Gardens Report (1880) 44. - Ancylocladus minutiflorus Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 95. - Willughbeia minutiflora (Pierre) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 2 (1900) 55. - Ancylocladus vriesianus Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 95. - Willughbeia vriesiana (Pierre) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 2 (1900) 55. - Ancylocladus nodosus Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 96. - Willughbeia nodosa (Pierre) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 2 (1900) 55. - Willughbeia firma Blume var. macrophylla Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 4. - Willughbeia firma Blume var. obtusifolia Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 4. - Willughbeia firma Blume var. platyphylla Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 4. S Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan.

  4. Willughbeia flavescens Dyer ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 625; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 429. - Chilocarpus flavescens Dyer, Kew Gardens Report (1880) 47, nom. nud. - Ancylocladus flavescens Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 412. - Urnularia flavescens (Hook.f.) Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 28 (1901) t. 2711: 2. - Willughbeiopsis flavescens (Hook.f.) Rauschert, Taxon 31 (1982) 556. - Ancylocladus beccarii Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 98. - Melodinus beccarii Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 98 (in synonymy). - Willughbeia beccarii (Pierre) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 2 (1900) 55. - Urnularia oblongifolia Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 28 (1901) t. 2711: 2. - Willughbeia stapfii Merr., J. Malayan Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 1 (1923) 29. - Urnularia beccarii (Pierre) Markgr., Blumea 20 (1973) 409. - Willughbeiopsis beccarii (Pierre) Rauschert, Taxon 31 (1982) 556. - Melodinus cymosus Ridl., J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 10 (1920) 146. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan.

  5. Willughbeia gigantea (Boerl.) Markgr., Blumea 20 (1973) 413; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 429. - Leuconotis gigantea Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 8. - Leuconotis gigantea Boerl. var. crassifolia Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 8. - Leuconotis gigantea Boerl. var. ovalis Boerl., Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 5 (1900) 8. Sumatra, Kalimantan.

  6. Willughbeia tenuiflora Dyer ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 625; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 435. - Ancylocladus tenuiflorus (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 412. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore.


WRIGHTIA R.Br.

  1. Wrightia laevis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 654; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 440. - Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. var. laevis (Hook.f.) Pichon, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 14 (1951) 80. - Wrightia millgar F.M. Bailey, Dept. Agric. Brisbane Bot. Bull. 7 (1893) 65. - Wrightia laevis Hook.f. subsp. millgar (F.M. Bailey) Ngan, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52 (1965) 137. - Wrightia hainanensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21 (1922) 352. - Wrightia balansae Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1188. - Wrightia macrocarpa Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1190. - Wrightia sorsogonensis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 10 (1939) 3698, nom. nud. - Wrightia hainanensis Merr. var. variabilis Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 4 (1939) 47. - Wrightia hainanensis Merr. var. chingii Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 4 (1939) 48. - Wrightia laevis Hook.f. subsp. novoguineensis Ngan, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52 (1965) 138. - Wrightia tinctoria auct. non R.Br.: Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1187. S China, continental SE Asia, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, New Guinea, Queensland.

  2. Wrightia pubescens R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 467; Middleton, Fl. Malesiana ser. 1, 18 (2007) 443. - Hunteria eugeniifolia Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 105. - Wrightia coraia Wall. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 407. - Wrightia multiflora Zipp. ex Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 325, nom. nud. - Wrightia calycina A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 406. - Wrightia spanogheana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 434. - Nerium macrocarpum Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 325, nom. nud. - Wrightia tinctoria auct. non R.Br.: Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 325.

    • subsp. lanitii (Blango) Ngan. - Anasser laniti Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 112. - Wrightia lanitii (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 27 (1905) 59. - Wrightia javanica A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 405. - Wrightia ovata A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 405. - Wrightia tomentosa Roem. & Schult. var. cochinchinensis Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1933) 1186. China, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java (W), Philippines, Sulawesi.


Literature


Middleton DJ. Apocynaceae (Subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae). Fl Malesiana ser 1. 2007;18:1-452.

Govaerts R, Goyder D, Leeuwenberg A. 2021. World Checklist of Apocynaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcsp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved May 14 2021.

Rahayu S. & Rodda M. 2019. Hoya of Sumatra, an updated checklist, three new species, and a new subspecies. European Journal of Taxonomy 508: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.508